SCHOOL VIOLENCE (websites):
The Resource Center's Federal partners and other private and public organizations provide a variety of educational materials and publications about all aspects of youth violence prevention. The National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center (Click Here)
ABSTRACT: To address the troubling presence of violence in the lives of U.S. youths, the Administration and Congress urged the Surgeon General to develop a report on youth violence, with particular focus on the scope of the problem, its causes, and how to prevent it. It reviews a massive body of research on where, when, and how much youth violence occurs, what causes it, and which of today's many preventive strategies are genuinely effective. This report focuses on physical assault.
ABSTRACT: This is a terrific collection of references regarding school
violence. Particular attention is made to defining and understanding the
variables inherent to the study of school violence. Role of evaluation and
research section provides valuable insight to being able to further understand
the issues surrounding school violence. The final section provides examples of
school prevention programs.
ABSTRACT: This site provides insight, facts, and information about how North
Carolina is developing programs for Safe Schools. Several insightful links to
the facts page and their Pyramid program provides theoretical understanding to
the programs structure and student centered approach.
ABSTRACT: The Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence at the Institute of Behavioral Science through the University of Colorado at Boulder provides a searchable database for articles relating to school violence, publications, and facts sheets. The information in the facts sheets section provides information on the diverse kinds of violence and position papers regarding their impact. Violence Fact Sheets
National Center for Education Statistics- Provides reports on topics related to education in the United States
Kaufman, P., Rudy, S. A., Chen, X., Choy, S. P., Miller, A. K., Fleury, J.
K., Chandler, K. A., Rand, M. R., Klaus, P., & Planty, M. G. (2000).
Indicators of school crime and safety, 2000 (NCJ 184176/NCES 2001-017).
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics; U.S.
Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.
U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics. Status of Data on Crime and Violence in Schools: Final Report, Working Paper No. 97-09, by Nidhi Khattri. Project Officer, Carol Sue Fromboluti. Washington, D.C.: 1997.(View Here)
The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's (OJJDP's) Study
Group on Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders devoted 2 years to analyzing the
research on risk and protective factors for serious and violent juvenile
offending, including predictors of juvenile violence derived from the findings
of long-term studies. This Bulletin describes a number of such risk and
protective factors, including individual, family, school, peer-related,
community/neighborhood, and situational factors.
United States Department of Education News Release - Has some supporting links regarding Dr. Riley's presentation (October 26, 2000)- SCHOOL VIOLENCE DROPS FOR THIRD STRAIGHT YEAR; FEWER STUDENTS CARRYING WEAPONS TO SCHOOL (Read it here)
Learn, listen, and read how over 100 of the top officials see school violence. The report of the conference contains numerous agency links and different views towards the violence being experienced in the schools. School Violence Prevention
Definitions of the wide variety of prevention programs along with prevention program profiles. A very remedial site in describing the variety of programs, but it does provide insight to the complexity of the problem. Youth Violence Prevention
Snyder, H. N., & Sickmund, M. (1999). Juvenile offenders and victims: 1999 national report (NCJ 178257). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. [Available on the World Wide Web: http://www.ncjrs.org/html/ojjdp/nationalreport99/toc.html
Early Warning, Timely Response: A Guide to Safe Schools.
Abstract: This guide presents a brief summary of the research on violence prevention and intervention and crisis response in schools. It tells school communities: (1) what to look for--the early warning signs that relate to violence and other troubling student behavior; and (2) what to do--the action steps that school communities can take to prevent violence and other troubling behaviors, to intervene and get help for troubled children, and to respond to school violence when it occurs. Sections in this guide include: (1) "Introduction," describing the rationale for the guide and suggesting how it can be used by schools to develop a plan of action; (2) "Characteristics of a School That Is Safe and Responsive to All Children," describing characteristics of schools that support prevention, appropriate intervention, and effective crisis response; (3) "Early Warning Signs," presenting early warning signs of a troubled student, imminent warning signs, and the principles that ensure these signs will not be misinterpreted (concludes with a brief description of using the signs to shape intervention practices); (4) "Getting Help for Troubled Children," describing what to do when intervening early with students who are at risk for behavioral problems, when responding with intensive interventions for individual children, and when providing a foundation to prevent and reduce violent behavior; (5) "Developing a Prevention and Response Plan," offering suggestions for such plans; (6) "Responding to Crisis," describing what to do when intervening during a crisis to ensure safety and when responding in the aftermath of crisis; (7) "Conclusion"; and (8) "Methodology, Contributors and Research Support," describing the rigorous development and review process used in producing the guide, and providing information about the project's World Wide Web site. A final section lists resources that can be contacted for more information.
Electronic version: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OSERS/OSEP/earlywrn.html
ABSTRACT: A Silican priest, Luigi Taparelli d’Azeglio, first used the term social justice in 1840. Towards the end of the nineteenth century the term was used to appeal to the ruling class of the inequities of the masses of uprooted peasants who became urban workers. However, as time went on the term began to take on a different meaning by becoming the utopian goal by which all institutions and all individuals should be directed towards through coercion. This definition most assuredly alienates the term of "social" from justice since it is no longer rooted in a social derivation. Two things must be present to be truly identified as social justice. The first is that others come together on their own volition to work towards justice. The second is that citizens get together to do something for the good of the community, not for an individual, entity, or institution.
Novak, M. (2000, December). Defining social justice. First things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life, pp. 11-13. (View Article)
ABSTRACT: The Scholastic Aptitude test is a widely used test for the determination of entrance into higher education and is also used by these institutions for accountability and accreditation purposes. However, the use of this assessment instrument may also be a major impetus in maintaining the social injustices of certain citizens to access and equity regarding educational opportunities. The paper discusses the history of assessment, both pros and cons, but then answers this ethical dilemma by sharing that it is in the publics’ best interest to assess individual differences in intellectual and/or academic competencies. To give in to public opinion leaders and policymakers regarding the use of the S.A.T. would jeopardize the publics’ best interest regarding the issues of assessment, access, and equity in and towards quality education.
Fincher, C. (1999). Social justice, the public interest
and the scholastic aptitude test.
ABSTRACT: Our educational system is changing rapidly due to demographics. Because of this rapid change, it is imperative that the public education systems move toward a more democratic ideal that embraces social justice and inclusivity. Adults must request from their leaders a democratic solution to the changing times rather than one based in capitalist terms. The empowerment of the oppressed and discriminated must come from those identities beyond and separate from the powers of the paid labor and social classes, i.e., multiple identity coalitions. As it stands today, those with power, privilege, access, and wealth make the determinations of those who do not. Those most oppressed and affected by injustice, not the other way around must represent multicultural education.
Brosio, R.A. (1997). Diverse school populations and the corresponding need for multiple identity coalitions. Chicago, IL: Educational Research Association. (ERIC Document Reproductive Service No. ED 410 349)
ABSTRACT: The strength of Marxist history is that it allows us to interrogate the history of schooling in relation to broader socio-economic forces. Summarizing Marx's perspective, society consisted of the economic 'base' and a predetermined 'superstructure' of other social institutions and practices such as education, ideas, beliefs and values. Schools in turn teach and prepare students to enter this predetermined superstructure in order to maintain this economic base. Karl Marx’s view of history seeks to understand the nature of the relationship between economic forces of production, social institutions and everyday life in specific historical circumstances. However, even within this realm of determinism, a post-structuralist theoretical approach would assist others in understanding that even within this "class" system, individuals do and are making choices, even if they are somewhat "confining".
Down, B. (1994). Marxist history and schooling: Beyond economism. Issues in
Educational Research, 4(1), pp. 1-17. Retrieved February 1, 2001 from the World
ABSTRACT: The paper discusses five conditions that are shared by socially, culturally, historically, and politically oppressed groups: oppression, exploitation, marginalization, powerlessness, cultural imperialism, and violence. One would assume that leisure type activities would be opportunities for a "level playing field". But not so fast, they also can and are sources of continued oppression and separation by class, race, gender, sexual orientation, and disability. The recommendation in this article is for researchers to use a social justice paradigm to evaluate not how injustices occur to groups, but instead study how institutions contribute to the marginalization of and exploitation of certain groups.
Allison, M.T. (2000). Leisure, diversity and social justice. Journal of Leisure Research
32(1), pp. 2-6.
ABSTRACT: Discussion of what is social justice is the primary impetus of this paper. Since social justice is the idealistic notion that society assumes a shared responsibility for one another, numerous dilemmas regarding what should be basic and a right to all members of a society is quite complicated to resolve. Justice provides for the people’ basic needs and rights, but sometimes that is at loss of an individuals pride and dignity.
Charity, J. (n.d.). The concept of social justice: Do people get what they deserve, or
deserve what they get? Retrieved February 5, 2001 from the World Wide Web:
ABSTRACT: Education is a shared experience by all members of a society. However, special interest groups have attached themselves to schools to only work on part of the problems with schools, that being to increase academic achievement. The other part to education is how to develop citizenry dedicated to and capable of utilizing and promoting democratic ideals and practices. A history of this account through the works of John Dewey focusing on the role of the teacher and Earl Kelley’s focus on perception are presented highlighting each of these contributions to education.
Wyett, J.L. (1999). John Dewey & Earl Kelley: Giants in democratic education.
Education, 119(1), pp. 151-160.
ABSTRACT: Relating justice studies to middle and upper income students is a challenge. Because these students have benefited from having access to political freedom and economic affluence, they are the most challenging for teachers. It is difficult, if not impossible, for them to relate to poverty and oppression. However, these students all have an affinity to think and dream of their future. The use of moral imagination provides an opportunity for them to explore social justice issues through personalized life experiences. The students reflect on their personal stories in which they experience a social injustice. Once this has been completed, they reflect on the written story and identify the moral principle or principles involved and then develop practical actions to rectify the injustice. Through repetition of this activity, students develop self-confidence and an understanding of how to overcome and challenge their social injustices.
Craig, R.P. (1994). Self-interest and moral imagination – a way to teach social justice.
The Social Studies, 85(3), pp. 127-130.
ABSTRACT: Social justice, equal rights, and access to knowledge are all very terrific goals, but in a true democracy these are available to everyone. However, this article discusses the injustices and difficulties of inner-city youth to these goals. Families of inner cities and across the country are changing dramatically through divorce, abuse, and victimization. Human service agencies are now unable to respectfully deal with issues and are often contributory to the problems by dysfunctional policies, political forces, budget cuts, rules, and bureaucratic entanglements. Educational institutions are not providing learning environments but are instead developing seeds of community resentment and status inequities. Examples of community agencies working with schools and family support programs are identified which are enhancing opportunities for inner-city youth are highlighted. The continued development of change, collaboration, and conviction by all those involved are noted as the continued precursors towards social justice for inner-city youth.
Kagan, S.L. (1997). Support systems for children, youths, families, and schools in inner-
city situations. Education & Urban Society, 29(3), pp.277+. Retrieved February
10, 2001, from EBSCO database Academic Search FullTEXT Elite
ABSTRACT: Lifelong learning is substantially lacking in critical concern, social vision, and any commitment to social justice and equity. It is presently a product of economic determinism. For one to benefit from the opportunity of lifelong learning they must be able to pay for it. Costs and benefits as measured by the economy that are the inherent driving forces of whether someone will be provided the opportunity to continue their learning opportunities. Current practices of lifelong learning are heavily tied to occupational and vocational skill development and not real learning. This focus doesn’t empower social learning and advancement, but instead roots itself more deeply into the maintenance of economic capitalism endeavors. The way out is to develop true life long learning skills rather than life preparatory skills.
Bagnall, R.G. & Bagnall, R.G. (2000). Lifelong learning and the limitations of economic
determinism. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 19(1), pp.20+.
Retrieved February 11, 2001, from EBSCO database Academic Search FullTEXT
ABSTRACT: Thorndike felt lifelong education was not a mechanism for combating the inequalities of schooling and society. He was also convinced that adults were less able to learn than children were and that the pursuit of adult education should be reserved for those with the most intelligent. In addition, teacher’s time is wasted working with the marginal (intellectual/achievement) child, but instead their time would be most advantageously used working with the more identified elite. His biggest contribution, or detriment to education, was the quantification of tasks, learning, and activities. Dewey, on the other hand, focused on the cultural determinants of thought and defined democracy as a form of life rather than a set of government institutions. He was personally convinced that social reform could be achieved only when individuals were educated in the intellectual skills and social virtues necessary for democratic citizenship. However, the traditional school, with its economy of abstract learning, punishment, and competition thwarts these abilities for individualized growth and altruism to others.
Tomlinson, S. (1997). Edward Lee Thorndike and John Dewey on the science of
education. Oxford Review of Education, 23(3), pp. 365+. Retrieved February 11, 2001, from EBSCO database Academic Search FullTEXT Elite (AN:9710072218)
ABSTRACT: This article strongly encourages that public school reform focus on the democratic purpose of schooling and the institutional practices and problems that inhibit this action toward the ideal. To date, the school reform movement has done little to analyze and address the inequalities or the reproduction of social justice in the schools or larger society. A real critical evaluation of the systems and institutions needs to be made before the betterment of all participants can be achieved. Social scientists, educational researchers, evaluators, and practitioners must come together focusing on the moral imperative and develop a political commitment to social justice within this critical evaluation of educational reform.
Waters, G.A. (1998). Critical evaluation of education reform. Educational Policy
Analysis Archives, 20(6). Retrieved February 11, 2001, from the World Wide
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