Targeting For Fluency



Fluency Lesson Design

Turquoise Dillard

Rational: To become fluent readers, students must read with automatic word recognition, so that sight words are recognized effortlessly and involuntarily. In realistic terms, a fluent reading is one in which most or all the words are in the reader’s sight vocabulary. Automatic word recognition allows students to read quickly and smoothly, to interpret text expressively when reading aloud, and to read silently twice as fast as we can read orally. A good way for building fluency is the method of repeated reading. The basic idea of repeated reading is straightforward. Have students reread the same passage under the teachers’ guidance until the reading is fluent. The goal for this lesson is to help students become more fluent by using repeated readings. This lesson will also help students’ read faster and comprehend the text. Students’ should be able to read words by decoding, cross checking, and mentally marking to understand spellings.


·         Copy of  “Junie B. Jones and some Sneaky Peeky Spying” for each student

·         Short sentences for students to practice and to use as example

·         Progress Check list


1)  Start the lesson by explaining to students what it means to be a fluent reader and why it is important that students are fluent.  It is important for fluent readers to be able to read texts smoothly and with expression. Being able to read a text smoothly means being able to read sentences and paragraphs without getting confused on the words and having the ability to comprehend the text. Fluent readers should also be able to read with expression. Reading with expression is when you notice the different tones and emotions of the characters and carry out their feelings when you read aloud or silently.

2) Remind students of a self-help strategy (cover-ups, cross-checking, rereading). Talk about the cover-up strategy so that the students can use this while reading. “Today we are going to read silently. While reading, remember to cross check, finish up reading the sentence when you are stuck to see if a difficult word makes sense”.


3)    Now model non-fluent and fluent reading, dramatizing reading gains. To model, you have to explain how you are going to get better. Say: I am going to show you how a reader who is not fluent would read (sentence strips should be taped to the board). Say to the students: Using this sentence I will show you how a reader become fluent reading new words. First, I will demonstrate a non-fluent reader. /J//u//n//i//e  B.  /J//o//n// e/s is in /k//i/n//d//e//r//g//a// r//t//e/n/.   I had to decode three words I was not sure of and I’m still not sure what they are. I’m going to try again [The teacher repeats the text by blending the phonemes together and crosschecking.]  /Ju//n//ie/ oh, Junie B./Jo//n//es/ oh, Junie B. Jones is in /Kin//der//gar//ten/ oh, Junie B. Jones is in Kindergarten. I’m going to read it again because I know the words now, and I want it to sound smooth: Junie B Jones is in Kindergarten. It made sense when I read it smoothly the third time. I wonder what Junie B. Jones is going to be doing in Kindergarten!


4)   Say: “Now we are going to read a book called Junie B. Jones and some Sneaky Peeky Spying. We are going to practice our fluency while we read this book. Students will have a chance to read it by themselves before reading it aloud with a partner.  “Junie B. Jones spies on her teacher and learns something she’s not sure if she should tell anyone. Will Junie tell anyone what she saw”? Will she get in trouble for spying on her teacher”? We will have to read to find out! First, I am going to read some of the story to you, and I want you to notice how I read fluently. Instruct the students to read the rest of chapter one by themselves, practicing their fluency.

5)    Say: When you have completed reading independently, get with a partner and practicing reading a few sentences. See how you get better when you reread. The first time you read the sentences, I want to whisper read quietly. You will chart your progress so you can see just how important reading is. As you sit with your partner, one of you will be timer and the other will be the reader. The timer will keep time on how long it takes the reader to read the first chapter of the book. You will then switch spots. After you both have a turn, you can finish the book together.



6)      Assessment: The students will answer these questions: “What two things made Junie B. a good spy? Why did Ollie wake up? What happens on Grandparents’ Day?  Why do you think Mrs. didn’t answer Junie B.’s questions?  Why did Mother take Junie B. outside of the store”?



Park, Barbara. Junie B. Jones and some Sneaky Peeky Spying. Scholastic Inc. 1994.

Murray, B. Developing reading fluency

Fancy Fluency, by Carmen Harper

Tate, Natalie. “Kites are Slow, Reading is Fast”

Speed Reading Progress Sheet:


Name: _______________________ Partner's Name: ___________________


How many words read?


1st Read:


2nd Read:


3rd Read:



Chart of Fluency:


Name:_____________________ Partner's Name: ____________________


My Partner: (Put x's under time)


After 2nd time: After 3rd time:


Increased reading rate:


Read more smoothly:


Read with expression:

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