A. The importance of speaking:
1. speaking as goal of ESL instruction
2. speaking as a means of language acquisition: the output hypothesis
B. What is involved in speaking?
--determine preverbal message
--determine register and other sociolinguistic features
--decide what words to use
--retrieve lexical, grammatical, and semantic information from the lexicon
--build a syntactic frame
--build phrases and arrange them in order
--use non-verbal cues
C. Principles of Teaching Speaking
1. Help students overcome their initial reluctance to speak. Be encouraging; provide opportunity; start from something simple;
2. Ask students to talk about what they want to talk about.
3. Ask students to talk about what they are able to talk about.
4. Provide appropriate feedback.
5. Combine speaking with listening and reading
6. Incorporate the teaching of speech acts in teaching speaking.
D. Ideas and Activities for Teaching Speaking (Ur, 1996)