PG 660 Behavioral Pharmacology.
Take Home Examination. 2
8 November 1998.

Work independently on these items. Please put the question at the top of your answer and for multipart questions use section headers to tell me what section you are answering. Feel free to ask me about an item that you have a question about. Each item is worth an equal number of points. Turn in the examinations by Friday, 4 December 1998 at 12:00 noon. I retain the option of adding an item should an interesting possibility arise. Enjoy!


Mandatory Items (1, 2, and 3)
  1. Distinguish among metabolic tolerance, pharmacodynamic tolerance, and behavioral tolerance (respondent and operant based). In each case give an example of a drug that produces that kind of tolerance and state exactly why it is an example, i.e., be specific about the mechanism by which tolerance develops. Be sure to begin with a definition of tolerance.
  2. Discuss the concept that stimulus control over behavior mediate drug-effects. Describe the experimental preparation(s) by which this phenomenon has been investigated, some of the various conditions under which it has appeared, and whether it shows any specificity to drug classes. Include, at the end, a paragraph discussing how this phenomenon might be relevant in other areas.
  3. The data in Table 1 come from an experiment in which responding was maintained by food and, in one component, simultaneously suppressed by response-contingent electric shock (Cook, L. and Sepinwall, J. (1976) Reinforcement schedules and extrapolations to humans from animals in behavioral pharmacology. In B. Weiss and V. G. Laties (Eds). Behavioral Pharmacology: The Current Status. New York: Plenum. Also summarized in Carlton, P.L. (1983) A Primer of Behavioral Pharmacology, New York: W. H. Freeman. ). Use these data to answer this question.
    1. Describe how such data are derived from a FI schedule. Use a figure showing cumulative responding under a typical FI (say, FI 100") and illustrating what the bins are.
    2. Make a "rate-dependency" plot by hand, showing the role of response rate in determining the drug's effect for the two types of behavior. Use appropriately labeled and scaled axes. Note the range of data before purchasing log paper.
    3. Make a "rate-constancy" plot by hand, showing response rate under drug conditions as a function of control rate. Use appropriately labeled and scaled axes.
    4. Interpret the results in terms of a) response rate and b) the conditions maintaining behavior.
 
Table 1 . Effects of Chlordiazepoxide (CDZ) on Punished and Unpunished Behavior. 
Unpunished Component Punished Component
Rate (responses/sec) % control Rate (responses/sec) % control
Interval 

Bin

Control 20 mg/kg 

CDZ

Control 20 mg/kg 

CDZ

1 .5 .625 .008 .056
2 .7 .77 .0085 .051
3 .75 .78 .009 .049
4 .8 .8 0.01 .053
5 .9 .86 .011 .05
6 1 .8 .012 .048
7 1.1 .73 .013 .04
8 1.3 .91 .015 .038
9 1.8 1.08 .02 .04
10 2 1 .025 .032
 
 
 
Optional Items. (Answer Any 3)
  1. How did Branch and Gollub examine the mechanism by which moderate response rates seen (on the average) in the middle of the fixed-interval schedule are changed by amphetamine? Describe the procedure and the conclusions.
  2. Describe the experimental protocol necessary to demonstrate that behavioral tolerance has occurred by operant mechanisms. Be sure to discuss the control procedures required, and why they must be used. Give two examples of behavioral tolerance from this quarter.
  3. Describe the approaches that have been taken to measuring and studying drug/behavior interactions on the physical characteristics of the operant itself.
  4. Define cross-tolerance, how it has been examined experimentally and how it is understood mechanistically. Identify the conditions under which it would be expected to occur, and those under which it should not occur. Give examples from published studies.
  5. Describe two ways in which behavioral history influences the effects of a drug. Be specific and use examples from the published literature.
  6. Describe some of the procedures that have been used to investigate drug effects on learning and memory. Critically discuss those that have been studied in human and nonhuman species. Summarize some of the drug effects.

 

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