This is a reading seminar on the history of industrialization in the southern United States to about 1865. Students will read, analyze, and discuss contemporary monographs and explore the artifacts and technologies the authors present as evidence. The seminar process will familiarize students with authors, interpretations, and methodologies with emphasis on new work.
The seminar provides historiographic depth in the fields of United States history through the nineteenth century and the history of technology.
Required Common Books
Delfino, Susanna and Michele Gillespie. Global Perspectives on Industrial Transformation in the American South. Missouri, 2005. ISBN 0826215831
Wells, Jonathan Daniel. The Origins of the Southern Middle Class, 1800-1861. University of North Carolina, 2004. ISBN 0807855537
Stokes, Melvin and Stephen Conway, eds. The Market Revolution in America: Social Political, and Religious Expressions, 1800-1880. University Press of Virginia, 1996. ISBN 978-0813916507
Rampolla, Mary Lynn. A Pocket Guide to Writing in History. Bedford, Current. ISBN 978-0312 53503 2.
You must read and think about assignments and come to seminar prepared to discuss and debate them. You must also consider the week's historiographic question and compose questions of your own for the works you and others read.
Attendance is required at every meeting. If you are absent without an approved university excuse you will forfeit the week's grade.
Weekly Assignments and Essays 50%
ASSIGNMENTS: Each week we will collectively read five monographs, one each assigned to a pair of students who will write slightly different essays.
ESSAYS: For each seminar meeting you will write a one-page, two-paragraph, analysis of the assigned work. Each is worth 10 points for a term total of 140 points.
FIRST PARAGRAPH: ALL
In the first paragraph everyone will identify the work (author, title, date) then summarize it. Tell us what it is about. Use the Table of Contents to guide you. Your summary must be brief and descriptive not analytical. We'll analyze the work in class. Conclude with the author's thesis in one simple sentence. You may earn up to two additional points if you express the thesis in a tweet, 140 characters, punctuation included.
SECOND PARAGRAPH: ARGUMENT
One student in the pair will explain how the author structured the argument and how the structure informed the analysis, narrative, or thesis. To varying degrees authors will use a topical or chronological structure. Identify that of course but look deeper for a structure on which the author built the monograph. Often the author explains the structure in the Introduction but you might have to search for it.
SECOND PARAGRAPH: EVIDENCE
The other student in the pair will identify one discrete piece of primary evidence and explain how the author used it to make what significant point. For example, use a letter written by James Henry Hammond on 12 April 1861 but not a collection of letters edited by Dr. Noe or the Newell Patent Safety Lamp but not 19th century gas lamps. Note that I'm asking for a significant point. Defend your choice if you think I'll question it.
I must have the essay by Tuesday noon, in either my email (pdf prefered) or mail box. I will deduct two points (20%) from submissions every hour thereafter. I will read but will not grade essays received after four p.m. Tuesday.
I grade rigorously scrutinizing your format, grammar, your ideas, as well as your writing style. Consult a grammar book and aim for clarity. Check over your work before you submit it. I'll be happy to share the rubric I use.
ESSAY DIRECTIONS: Type only your name and date on the top line of the sheet. Then begin the analysis. It must be double-spaced, left justified, in a 12 point font with one inch margins on all sides (I will measure). Footnotes are unnecessary and quotations are verboten! Use Rampolla as your guide.
I will usually begin the seminar with some kind of exercise, which you will complete on the verso of the essay then turn in. I will mark up the analyses during seminar, grade it later, and put it in your mailbox by 4 p.m. Thursday.
I will read but not grade analyses that make the same mistakes for two consecutive weeks. The most ignored corrections and comments involve grammar, typically the use of the passive tense, first person, and quotes. I will not grade your work if my correction does not result in an improvement in your performance. This means that you will receive no points for the essay even though you submitted it on time.
Paper 1: Technology Essay 20%
You will write a five-page paper on one occupation, artifact, or labor process examined in one or more of the assigned monographs. Please clear your topic with me before beginning. I encourage you to supplement what you read with visits to the Lee County Historical Society, The Museum of East Alabama, Historic Westville in nearby Lumpkin, Georgia, or any other historical site, museum, or collection relevant to antebellum southern industrialization. The paper will be whatever combination of empiricism and theory you deem appropriate. Please use the essay format (double space, left justified, 12 point font, one inch margins) and footnote in Chicago Style. Due anytime before the Thanksgiving Break.
Ideas and Sources
Colonial Williamsburg Trades
Paper 2: Historiography 30%
At the end of the term you will submit a 10-15 page historiographic essay on a substantive question in the historiography of southern industrialization. Remember that such questions may not be answerable by "yes" or "no." Each of the works you read addressed a historiographic question either implicitly or explicitly. Sometimes the research question can lead you to the historiographic question. Remember, though, you are not writing history but historiography.
You must work within certain conceptual guidelines (historiography) but I expect you to engage complexity and apply creativity to write a paper that will transfix the reader and carry her not simply from one book to another but from one compelling idea to another. Your singular conclusion will neatly recapitulate the ideas you considered most significant and will express your studied position on the question you have posed. I will grade students on their success in achieving this goal.
The paper must follow the essay format. Please use endnotes in Chicago Style and append the department's plagiarism policy, signed and dated. No cover sheets or bindings, please. Please submit in both hard copy and electronically by 4 p.m. Monday, November 28, 2011, the first day after Thanksgiving Break.
Academic Honesty Policy
I encourage collaboration but will accept only original work. Anything less will be considered plagiarism. The Tiger Cub Rules defines plagiarism as the use of "words or ideas of another as if they were one's own (p. 87)." Plagiarism is a cowardly waste of time. It is also a violation of the University Academic Honesty Code (SGA Code of Laws, Ch. 1200). I will rigorously pursue violations according to guidelines: AU Academic Honesty Code.
Students with Disabilities
I will accommodate any student with any disability. Please registered with the Students with Disabilities office and meet with me privately.
Week 01: Southern Industrialization: Definitions, Dilemmas, Challenges
Bring a copy of the syllabus and Rampolla. Come prepared to discuss the Southern Studies Manifesto, above.
Week 02: Southern Industrialization: Constructed and Contingent
ALL: Delfino, Susanna and Michele Gillespie. Global Perspectives on Industrial Transformation in the American South. Missouri, 2005.
Week 03: Early Industrialism
How did the colonial experience influence southern political economy?
1. Carney, Judith A. Black Rice: The African Origins of Rice Cultivation in the Americas. Harvard, 2001. Kindle.
2. Chaplin, Joyce. An Anxious Pursuit: Agricultural Innovation and Modernity in the Lower South, 1730-1815. UNC, 1993.
3. Dupre, Daniel S. Transforming the Cotton Frontier: Madison County, Alabama, 1800-1840. LSU, 1997.
4. Morris, Christopher. Becoming Southern: The Evolution of a Way of Life, Warren County and Vicksburg, Mississippi, 1770-1860. Oxford, 1995. Kindle.
5. Rockman, Seth. Scraping By: Wage Labor, Slavery, and Survival in Early Baltimore. JHU, 2009. Kindle.
Week 04: Southern Exceptionalism?
How do historians explain the distinctiveness of antebellum southern industrialism without falling into the exceptionalism-trap?
1. Adams, Sean. Old Dominion; Industrial Commonwealth: Coal, Politics, and Economy in Antebellum America. JHU, 2004. Kindle.
2. Amos Harriet. Cotton City: Urban Development in Antebellum Mobile. Alabama, 1985.
3. Brazy, Martha Jane. An American Planter: Stephen Duncan of Antebellum Natchez and New York. LSU, 2006. Kindle.
4. Majewski, John. A House Dividing: Economic Development in Pennsylvania and Virginia before the Civil War. Cambridge, 2006.
5. Smith, Mark M. Mastered by the Clock: Time, Slavery, and Freedom in the American South. Harvard, 1997.
Week 05: A Southern Middle Class?
What factors combined to create a southern middle class?
ALL Wells, Jonathan Daniel, The Origins of the Southern Middle Class, 1800-1861. UNC, 2004.
Week 06: A Bougeois, Capitalist, and Urban South?
According to historians, how modern and how capitalist was the antebellum South?
1. Byrne, Frank J. Becoming Bourgeois: Merchant Culture in the South, 1820-1865. Kentucky, 2006.
2. Downey, Tom. Planting a Capitalist South: Masters, Merchants, and Manufacturers in the Southern Interior, 1790-1860. LSU, 2006. Kindle.
3. Eelman, Bruce W. Entrepreneurs in the Southern Upcountry: Commercial Culture in Spartanburg, South Carolina, 1845-1880. Georgia, 2008.
4. Shore, Laurence. Southern Capitalists: The Ideological Leadership of an Elite, 1832-1885. UNC, 1986.
5. Towers, Frank. The Urban South and the Coming of the Civil War. Virginia, 2004.
Week 07: Slaves Worked.
How do historians interrogate the role of enslaved men and women in southern economic development?
1. Dew, Charles B. Bond of Iron: Master and Slave at Buffalo Forge. Norton, 1994.
2. Follett, Richard. The Sugar Masters: Planters and Slaves in Louisiana's Cane World, 1820-1860. LSU, 2007.
3. Johnson, Michael P. and James L. Roark. Black Masters: A Free Family of Color in the Old South. Norton, 1984.
4. Lupold, John S. & Thomas L. French Jr. Bridging Deep South Rivers: The Life and Legend of Horace King. Georgia, 2004.
5. Wright, Gavin. Slavery and American Economic Development. LSU, 2006.
Week 08: White and Black Workers in the Antebellum South
According to historians, how did white, free black, and enslaved workers mediate conflict?
1. Barnes, L. Diane. Artisan Workers in the Upper South: Petersburg, Virginia 1820-1865. LSU, 2008.
2. Beatty, Bess. Alamance: The Holt Family and Industrialization in a North Carolina County, 1837-1900. LSU, 1999.
3. Bolton, Charles C. Poor Whites of the Antebellum South. Duke, 1994.
4. Gillespie, Michele. Free Labor in an Unfree World, Georgia, 2000.
5. Skinner, James L. III, ed. The Autobiography of Henry Merrell: Industrial Missionary to the South. Georgia, 1991.
Week 09: Working Women in the Antebellum South
According to historians, how did white and black women exploit both domestic and market spheres?
1. Delfino, Susanna & Michele Gillespie. Neither Lady Nor Slave: Working Women of the Old South. UNC, 2001.
2. Faust, Drew Gilpin. Mothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War. Vintage, 1996. Kindle.
3. Fox-Genovese, Elizabeth. Within the Plantation Household: Black and White Women of the Old South.UNC, 1988. Kindle.
4. Hill, Sarah. Weaving New Worlds: Southeastern Cherokee Women and their Basketry. UNC, 1997.
5. Lebsock, Susan. The Free Women of Petersburg: Status and Culture in a Southern Town, 1784-1860. Norton, 1985.
Week 10: The Market Revolution
How do historians evaluate southern engagement in the Market Revolution?
ALL Stokes and Conway, eds. The Market Revolution in America: Social Political, and Religious Expressions, 1800-1880. Virginia,1996.
Week 11: Southern Life in the Age of Jackson
How do historians evaluate the effect of the market and transportation revolutions on working southerners, free and enslaved?
1. Buchanan, Thomas C. Black Life on the Mississippi: Slaves, Free Blacks, and the Western Steamboat World. UNC, 2004. Kindle.
2. Gruenwald, Kim M. River of Enterprise: The Commercial Origins of Regional Identity in the Ohio Valley. Indiana, 2002.
3. Larson, John Lauritz. The Market Revolution in America: Liberty, Ambition, and the Eclipse of the Common Good. Cambridge, 2010. Kindle.
4. Sellers, Charles. The Market Revolution: Jacksonian America, 1815-1846. Oxford, 1994. Kindle.
5. Taylor, George Rogers. The Transportation Revolution, 1815-1860. ANY, 1951.
Week 12: The Railroad and the South
According to historians what was the impact of the railroad on southern economy and society?
1. Fogel, Robert. Railroads and American Economic Growth. JHU, 1964.
2. Marrs, Aaron W. Railroads in the Old South: Pursuing Progress in a Slave Society. JHU, 2009.
3. Nelson, Scott Reynolds. Iron Confederacies: Southern Railways, Klan Violence, and Reconstruction. UNC, 1999. Kindle.
4. Noe, Kenneth. Southwest Virginia's Railroad: Modernization and the Sectional Crisis in the Civil War Era. Illinois, 1994.
5. Trelease, Allen W. The North Carolina Railroad, 1849-1871, and the Modernization of North Carolina. UNC, 1991.
Week 13: Private Enterprise: Southern Industrialism
How do historians explain the persistence of the myth of southern industrial backwardness?
1. Davis, Robert. Cotton, Fire, and Dreams: Robert Findlay Iron Works & Heavy Industry in Macon, Georgia. Mercer, 1998.
2. Evans, Curtis J. Conquest of Labor: Daniel Pratt and Southern Industrialization. LSU, 2001.
3. Lakwete, Angela. Inventing the Cotton Gin: Machine and Myth in Antebellum America. JHU, 2004.
4. Moore, John Hebron. Andrew Brown and Cypress Lumbering in the Old Southwest. LSU, 1967.
5. Outland, Robert B. III. Tapping the Pines: The Naval Stores Industry in the American South. LSU, 2004.
Week 14: State Enterprise: Confederate Industrialism. TECH ESSAYS DUE BY FRIDAY!
How do historians interpret the impact of the industrializing South on the successes but ultimate failure of the CSA?
1. Knight, H. Jackson. Confederate Invention: The Story of the Confederate States Patent Office and Its Inventors. LSU, 2011.
2. Majewski, John. Modernizing a Slave Economy: The Economic Vision of the Confederate Nation. UNC, 2009.
3. Morgan, Chad. Planters' Progress: Modernizing Confederate Georgia, UPF, 2005.
4. Williams, David. Rich Man's War: Class, Caste, and Confederate Defeat in the Lower Chattahoochee Valley. Georgia, 1998.
5. Wilson, Harold S. Confederate Industry: Manufacturers and Quartermasters in the Civil War. Mississippi, 2002. Kindle.
Week 15: Thanksgiving Break.
Week 16: HISTORIGRAPHIC ESSAYS due in my mail and email boxes Monday, Nov. 28, 2011, 4:00 p.m; Paper presentations in Wednesday Seminar.
Week 17: Finish paper presentations; Discuss labor process papers; Recapitulate seminar.