Practicing Fluency With Frog and Toad

Growing Independence and Fluency

Haley Nichols



Rationale:  Fluency is the ability to read with automatic word recognition.  In order to become a fluent reader, students must read at a good pace, accurately, and with good expression.  The strongest research evidence supports repeated readings to help students become fluent readers.  The goal of this lesson is to improve students' fluency through repeated reading.


Materials: Copy of Frog and Toad Together by Arnold Lobel for each student, timer for each pair of students, Fluency Check-List sheet for each student, Reading Record time sheet for each student, Cover Up Critter for each student (painted popsicle stick with two googly eyes glued to one end).



1. The teacher will start with, "Today we are going work on becoming more fluent readers." Then remind students the three components of fluent reading, " Fluent readers read smooth and quick, with expression to make the story exciting, and accurately. We can practice fluency by reading a book more than once so that we can become more familiar with it.  This is called repeated reading, and it is what we will be focusing on today.


2. The teacher will then model reading fluently. "I am going to read a sentence from one of my favorite books, Frog and Toad Together. (Slowly) 'T-t-O-a-a-d    l-oo-k    l-oo-k-d  at the s-u-n sun s-h-I-n sunshine co-ming coming th-roo the win-dow window.' Hm, let me read this again and see if I can do better. (Too fast) 'Toad looked at the sunshine coming through the windows.' Whoa, I don't know if I like that way either, I can't remember anything I just read!  I'm going to try this again.' (Just right) 'Toad looked at the sunshine coming through the window.' It was much easier for me to understand it that time because I read it smoothly, at a good pace, and with expression. It took me a few tries to get it just right."


3. The teacher will then engage the students in a book talk of a chapter from Frog and Toad Together. "This story is about our friends Frog and Toad. Frog has a wonderful garden full of plants and Toad decides he wants to make his own garden too.  Toad takes some seeds home and plants them, but after a few minutes, no plants have grown.  I wonder if Toads garden will ever grow. Let's read and find out."


4.  Give a copy of the text, cover up critters, reading record sheets, fluency checklists, and a timer to each set of partners. "Today you will be working on your fluency with the help of your partner. Each of you will take turns reading the story, three times each. You can use your cover-up critter to help you figure words out if you need it. While you are reading, your partner will time you and record it on the reading time sheet. Your partner will also be looking to see if you are reading smoother, with more expression, and remembering more words. After you finish reading, talk to your partner about the chapter, what types of plants do you think were in Frog and Toad's gardens? If you had a garden, what would you plant in it?"


Assessment: Walk around the classroom during the activity to monitor student reading and recording. Have the students turn in their score sheets after finishing their repeated reading. Graph each student's individual words per minute read so that they can see their improvements (Use words read x 60 divided by amount of seconds it took them to read the text).  Students will also write a small paragraph summarizing the story and turn it in.  This will allow the teacher to check for student comprehension.



Lobel, Arnold. Frog and Toad Together. Harper Collins. 1971.


Smith, Blair. Junie B. Jones is Captain Fluency.


Assessment Sheets


Fluency Checklist






Reading Record




Amount of Time for…


1st read:________________________________


2nd read:_______________________________


3rd read:_______________________________



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