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Department of Biological Sciences
Auburn University, Alabama

2006 Edition
Copyright 1997 2006 Debbie R. Folkerts. All Rights Reserved.

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THIS SITE IS UNDER CONSTRUCTION: IMAGES, NAVIGATIONAL AIDES, ADDITIONAL SPECIES, ADDITIONAL PERSONAL COLLECTION RECORDS, AND HELPFUL SUBLISTS WILL BE ADDED SOON
Introduction
Although the Alabama fauna was well represented in the collections of early workers in the southeastern U.S., little information has been gathered on Alabama spiders in the last half century. The relatively poor state of knowledge about the Alabama fauna is illustrated by the fact that about one third of the species listed in the present work are types that are likely to occur in the state based on nearby records, but for which no literature records for Alabama exist. The revision of the family Amaurobiidae by Leech (1972) did not list a single record from Alabama although he estimated that seven species occurred in the area. Although a considerable number of type specimens for the species listed, or for synonyms of the binomens, were collected in Alabama, most of this material has been lost or destroyed.

Conservation of the state's resources necessitates a complete knowledge of the biota. Alabama is a state with a diverse fauna, but also a state in which environmental change is taking place at an ever increasing rate. Knowledge of the fauna is critical in order to understand how to prevent further degradation.

Sources of the Information: This list has been compiled largely from three sources of information. First, the literature on each group has been consulted to the extent that resources allowed. Second, the personal experience of the compiler was used to include a number of species which have been collected or observed in the state, even though no supporting literature verification exists. Third, some information was obtained from other individuals deemed reliable sources of information on spiders. This list will be periodically updated.

Format of the List: In general, the taxa comprising the list are arranged following Ubick et al. (2005). Departures from their arrangement occur in taxa for which recent literature dictated changes or for which the opinion of the compiler differed. There has perhaps been a recent tendency to oversplit at the family level in the classification of spiders. Such oversplitting ignores the value of the comparability of taxa classified at the same level and disregards the usefulness of the subfamilial categories. Thus, in this list, the nominal families Amphinectidae and Titanoecidae are included in the Amaurobiidae and the Corinnidae and Miturgidae are retained within the Clubionidae. Although the generic names of Agnarsson (2004) are used, I have considerable reservations about the partitioning of the genus Argyrodes.

Users should keep in mind that this is a faunistic list, not a nomenclatural list. Authors of taxa are not listed. The designations following the binomen for each species indicate the source of the information. LR indicates a literature record for the state. GL indicates that the range as indicated in the literature or in the experience of the compiler probably includes some portions of Alabama. PC indicates that the compiler has personally collected, observed or examined specimens of the species from the state. Synonyms are included if they are considered important, especially if the type material for the synonym came from Alabama. Generally, older synonyms not in common usage are not included, especially if they have not been applied to the species in areas near Alabama. The "notes" portion of each species listing provides additional information related to range within the state, habitat preferences, or other information that may be of interest to the user. Exact quotations from monographs and faunistic works are sometimes included. Habitat and range information in the literature was often found to be erroneous, vague or based on an incomplete knowledge of the State's habitats. The literature references included with each species may enable the user to locate the source of the information or may point the user to other sources of information such as morphological descriptions, keys, identification aids or information on biology.

Size of the Alabama Fauna: This list includes representatives of 42 of the around 60 (depending on taxonomic opinion) spider families known to occur in the United States. A total of 583 species are included. Moulder (1992) listed over 500 species of spiders from Illinois, a state with a comparatively well-known fauna. Chamberlin and Ivie (1944) included 552 in their list of spiders of the Georgia region. Gaddy and Morse (1985) listed 326 species from South Carolina, but did not include the names of taxa that were geographically likely to occur but for which records were absent. Roth (1993) estimated that about 3500 species occur in the U.S. It is estimated that, with more thorough investigation, the Alabama fauna may be found to include at least 700 species. In a recent study of the spiders of several habitats in Baldwin and Mobile counties, I was able to add 6 species to the list and confirmed the presence of several that had been considered to be geographically likely. Several species endemic to Alabama are known (for example:Ctenus hybernalis, Habronattus leuceres, and several Leptonetidae and Nesticidae). It is expected that investigation of Alabama's diverse habitats will yield many more discoveries of unique species.

Common Names of Spiders: Well-established common names exist for relatively few spider species. Other species have been given common names so they can be used when appropriate. A list of common names of American arachnids (2003 edition) in .pdf format may be downloaded from The American Arachnological Society Web Site at http://www.americanarachnology.org/AAS_information.html
Acknowledgments: I am indebted to several people for their help in this work. I thank Greg Lein of the Alabama Natural Heritage Section of the Alabama Lands Division for recognizing the need for an Alabama spider faunal list. The Lands Division provided funds for a portion of this work. I am indebted to the late Vincent D. Roth for his diligent compilation of spider literature during his lifetime. The Web sites developed and maintained by Norman Platnick, by the Spiders of North America Check-list Committee, and the Nearctic Spider Database have been very helpful. Allison Teem assisted in gathering some of the literature. I thank Gary R. Mullen for advice and guidance, for introducing me to the study of spiders, and for information from his own collecting experience. Thanks to Winston and Linda Baker for numerous specimens. Jim Godwin and Ferrin W. Eiland II also contributed a number of specimens. George W. Folkerts has my sincere appreciation.

This site has been divided into six pages to facilitate loading by those having slow connections. The Literature Cited Page may be accessed by clicking on the "Ref." associated with most of the species.
MYGALOMORPHAE
Antrodiaetidae Atypidae Ctenizidae Cyrtaucheniidae Theraphosidae

ARANEOMORPHAE
Agelenidae Amaurobiidae Anyphaenidae Araneidae Clubionidae Ctenidae Deinopidae Dictynidae
Dysderidae Filistatidae Gnaphosidae Hahniidae Hypochilidae Leptonetidae Linyphiidae Liocranidae
Lycosidae Mimetidae Mysmenidae Nesticidae Oecobiidae Oonopidae Oxyopidae Philodromidae
Pholcidae Pisauridae Prodidomidae Salticidae Scytodidae Segestriidae Sicariidae Tengellidae
Tetragnathidae Theridiidae Theridiosomatidae Thomisidae Uloboridae Zoridae

MYGALOMORPHAE

ANTRODIAETIDAE

Antrodiaetus unicolor LR, PC

common name: turret spider, folding-door spider

Notes: Burrows found in sheltered slopes in humid, cool, densely forested habitats with sandy loam soil. Found in areas north of the Fall Line, and in the Red Hills.

Ref: Coyle 1971, Folkerts and Folkerts 1986.
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ATYPIDAE

Sphodros rufipes PC

common name: red-legged purse-web spider

Notes: Burrows found most often in flat areas near creek bottoms or on slopes above bottoms or flats. Above ground portions of webs are usually attached to the trunks of smooth-barked trees.

Ref: Gertsch and Platnick 1980, Folkerts and Folkerts 1986.
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CTENIZIDAE

Cyclocosmia truncata LR, PC

Synonym: Mygale truncata

Notes: Holotype from Alabama (no specific locality), destroyed. Gertsch and Platnick examined material from Cleburne, DeKalb, Hale, Jackson, Limestone, Madison, Marshall, Shelby, Talladega, and Tuscaloosa counties in Alabama. Habitat is moist, hardwood ravines.

Ref: Gertsch and Platnick 1975, Folkerts and Folkerts 1986.


Cyclocosmia torreya GL

Notes: Reported from northern Florida and southwestern Georgia. Some Alabama populations appear to be intermediate between this species and C. truncata

Ref.: Gertsch and Platnick 1975, Folkerts and Folkerts 1986.


Ummidia audouini complex PC

Synonym: Pachylomerus carabivorus

Notes: Specimens of this complex have been found throughout Alabama. Baerg (1928), using the name Pachylomerus carabivorus , stated that it is probably common all through the southern states.

Ref: Baerg 1928, Folkerts and Folkerts 1986.
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CYRTAUCHENIIDAE

Myrmekiaphila fluviatilis PC

Synonym: Mygale fluviatilis, Mygale foliata, Bolostromus fluviatilis

Notes: This species may well be a species complex.

Ref: Folkerts and Folkerts 1986.
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THERAPHOSIDAE

Aphonopelma sp.

Notes: Tarantulas of this family almost certainly do not occur in Alabama. However, Roth (1993) referred to "one questionable record from AL."
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ARANEOMORPHAE

AGELENIDAE

Agelenopsis emertoni LR

Notes: This species has been recorded from Auburn, Alabama.

Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1941.


Agelenopsis naevia GL

Synonym: Agelena naevia.

Notes: Records exist for this species in surrounding states (i.e. FL, GA, MS, TN). It is considered likely to occur in Alabama.

Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1941.


Barronopsis jeffersi GL

Synonym: Agelenopsis jeffersi

Notes: Roth recorded specimens from Maryland and also from Florida. This indicates the possibility of its occurrence in Alabama.

Ref.: Roth 1954.


Barronopsis texana

Synonyms: Agelena texana, Agelenopsis texana

Notes: Roth's records include Coosa River, Three Island Shoals, Talladega County, and Auburn. Lee County.

Ref.: Chamberlin and Ivie 1941, Roth 1954.


Calymmaria persica LR

Synonyms: Tegenaria persica, Calymmaria cavicola, Calymmaria montavencis.

Notes: Holotype specimen (T. persica) from Alabama (lost). This species has been collected in woods, caves, along streams, and behind waterfalls. It has been recorded from Blount, Colbert, Coosa, DeKalb, Jackson, Madison, Marshall and Walker counties in Alabama, mainly from caves.

Ref.: Heiss 1982, Heiss and Draney 2004.


Tegenaria domesticus LR

Synonyms: Araneus domesticus, Tegenaria civilis, T. detestabilis, T. modesta.

Notes: Cosmopolitan in its distribution, this species is introduced in the western hemisphere. The habitat is associated with human habitation except for 2 specimens collected from a cave in Alabama.

Ref.: Roth 1968.


Tegenaria pagana LR

Synonyms: T. bidentata, T. obscura, T. antrias, T. simplex, T. castro

Notes: Probably introduced in the western hemisphere. Roth included a dot on a map in the Washington-Baldwin-Mobile county area of Alabama.

Ref.: Roth 1968.
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AMAUROBIIDAE (including Titanoecidae and Amphinectidae)

Callobius bennetti GL

Notes: The range of this species extends from Newfoundland south to Georgia and west to Manitoba and Tennessee. It is considered likely to occur in Alabama.

Ref.: Kaston 1978.


Coras alabama

Notes: The holotype came from Madison County and one female paratype from Jackson County.

Ref.: Muma 1946


Coras lamellosus GL

Notes: This species is known from Pennsylvania south to Mississippi and west. It is possible that it occurs in Alabama.

Ref.: Muma 1946


Coras medicinalis

Notes: This species is known from Conecuh and Lee counties.

Ref.: Muma 1946


Coras perplexus

Notes: Three paratypes of this species came from Mobile County.

Ref.: Muma 1946


Coras taugynus

Notes: This species is known from caves in Blount, DeKalb, Jackson, Madison, and Morgan counties.

Ref.: Muma 1946


Metaltella simoni GL

Notes: This species is known from coastal areas of Florida, Mississippi and Louisiana. It occurs near to the Alabama border in Jackson Co., Mississippi. It almost certainly occurs in Alabama. It is usually found under logs.


Pimus leucus GL

Notes: Occurs in coastal areas of Florida, Mississippi and Louisiana. It is considered likely to occur in Alabama.

Ref.: Leech 1972.


Titanoeca brunnea GL

Notes: This species occurs in much of the eastern U.S., from Vermont to Florida and as far west as Arkansas. Even though there are no published records for this state, it is considered likely to occur in Alabama. It has been collected from leaf litter in woods.

Ref.: Leech 1972.


Wadotes bimucronatus LR

Synonyms: Coelotes bimucronatus, Wadotes carolinus, W. convolutus

Notes: Female holotype (W. convolutus) from Marshall County, Alabama, Bishop Cave, Bishop Mtn. Bennett also showed a record (dot map) in central Alabama and a range map which includes much of east central Alabama.

All Wadotes are found on the floor of deciduous or coniferous forests, in litter, rotting logs, or under rocks.

Ref.: Bennett 1987.


Wadotes calcaratus LR

Synonym: Coelotes calcaratus.

Notes: This species is rare south of the North Carolina-Georgia border. One specimen has been recorded from Alabama. Bennett showed a dot on a map in northeastern Alabama (Madison County?) and a range map that included the entire northeastern corner of the state.

Ref.: Bennett 1987.


Wadotes carinidactylus GL

Notes: This species was described from males only. Specimens have been collected from the Piedmont area of Georgia. Bennett did not list Alabama records but showed a map that extended the range into the Cleburne, Calhoun, Cherokee counties area of Alabama.

Ref.: Bennett 1987.


Wadotes dixiensis LR

Notes: Male holotype from Auburn, Alabama. Several records exist for the northern half of the state.

Ref.: Bennett 1987.


Wadotes hybridus LR

Synonym: Coelotes hybridus.

Notes: Bennett included a questionable record (dot map) in central Alabama.

Ref.: Bennett 1987.


Wadotes saturnus LR

Notes: This species is known from northeastern Alabama. Bennett showed dots which appear to be in Dekalb and Marshall counties, and a range map including the northeastern corner of Alabama.

Ref.: Bennett 1987.
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ANYPHAENIDAE

Anyphaena celer LR

Synonyms: Clubiona celer, Anyphaena incerta

Notes: This species is known from central Alabama (dot map). Male holotype (C. celer) from Alabama (destroyed). It has been collected in houses, deciduous forests, cotton fields, on flowers and treetrunks, and by pitfall trapping.

Ref.: Platnick 1974, Skinner 1974.


Anyphaena fraterna LR

Synonyms: Gayenna fraterna, Anyphaena conspersa, Sillus conspersus.

Notes: Map with dots in north-central, south-central and Mobile Bay areas of Alabama. Collected in foliage, pitfall and Malaise traps, and under logs.

Ref.: Platnick 1974.


Anyphaena maculata LR

Synonym: Gayenna maculata.

Notes: This species is known from northern Alabama (dot map). It has been collected in "bottomland pine and hardwood forests." Since there are no bottomland pine forests the habitat mentioned by Platnick remains unclear.

Ref.: Platnick 1974.


Anyphaena pectorosa LR

Synonyms: Gayenna calcarata, Anyphaena calcarata.

Notes: This species is known from east-central Alabama (dot map). It has been collected in foliage, under rocks and has been obtained by both pitfall and Malaise trapping.

Ref.: Platnick 1974.


Arachosia cubana LR

Synonyms: Gayennina britcheri, Oxysoma cubanum.

Notes: Known from Arkansas, Florida and North Carolina, this species probably occurs in Alabama.

Ref.: Platnick 1974, Brescovit 1997, Ramirez 2003.


Hibana cambridgei LR

Synonym: Aysha cambridgei

Notes: Dot on map in northeast Alabama. Collected on trees and shrubs.

Ref.: Platnick 1974, Brescovit 1991.


Hibana futilis GL

Synonyms: Anyphaena decepta, Aysha minuta Aysha decepta.

Notes: Map with dot in Mobile Bay area. Known from northern Florida to eastern Texas.

Ref.: Platnick 1974, Brescovit 1991.


Hibana gracilis LR

Synonyms: Clubiona gracilis, Anyphaena gracilis, A. rubra Aysha gracilis.

Notes: Map with dots in east- and west-central Alabama. Has been collected in pitcher plants, pines, fall webworm nests, cotton fields and houses.

Ref.: Platnick 1974, Skinner 1974, Brescovit 1991.


Hibana velox

Synonyms: Anyphaena velox, A. floridana, A. orlandensis, Chiracanthium falculum Aysha velox.

Notes: Map with dots in the Mobile Bay area. Collected from foliage and in houses.

Ref.: Platnick 1974, Brescovit 1991.


Lupettiana mordax LR

Synonyms: Delozeugma mordax, Anyphaena fragilis, A. laticeps, A. barrowsi, Gayenna parvula, G. absoluta, Sillus coloratus, Teudis fragilis, Teudis mordax.

Notes: Map with dots in Mobile Bay area and in west-central Alabama. Has been collected in pines and in fall webworm nests.

Ref.: Platnick 1974, Brescovit 1996.


Wulfila albens LR

Synonyms: Clubiona albens, Anyphaena albens, Chiracanthium albens, Anyphaenella alba, Wulfila alba.

Notes: Map with dots in the northern half of the state and 1 in the Mobile Bay area. Male holotype (C. albens) from Alabama. Has been collected in pines, and in pitfall and Malaise traps.

Ref.: Platnick 1974.


Wulfila saltabundus LR

Synonyms: Clubiona saltabunda, Anyphaena saltabunda, Gayenna saltabunda, Anyphaenella saltabunda, Wulfila saltabunda.

Notes: Map with dot in east-central Alabama. Female holotype (C. saltabunda) from Alabama. Has been collected by sweeping in apple trees and from cotton fields.

Ref.: Platnick 1974, Skinner 1974.



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ARANEIDAE

Acacesia hamata LR

Synonyms: Epeira hamata, E. foliata.

Notes: Found in a variety of woodland habitats throughout the eastern U.S. and in Central America. Has also been collected in cotton fields. Male (E. hamata) and female (E. foliata) type specimens from Chickasaw, Mobile County.

Ref.: Skiner 1974, Levi 1976, Glueck 1994.


Acanthepeira cherokee

Notes: Distribution in the southeastern U.S. Recorded from Mobile area of Alabama. Most often collected in bottomland woods.

Ref.: Levi 1976.


Acanthepeira marion LR

Notes: Known from scattered localities in the southeastern U.S. Collected in old fields and a sand dune area (Georgia). Recorded from the Mobile Bay area of Alabama.

Ref.: Levi 1976.


Acanthepeira stellata LR, PC

Synonym: Epeira nobilis.

Notes: Occurs throughout the eastern U.S. Often abundant, it is commonly found in fields, meadows, and open woods.

Ref.: Skinner 1974, Levi 1976.


Acanthepeira venusta LR

Synonyms: Plectana venusta, Araneus venustus.

Notes: Often confused with A. stellata. Levi (1976) felt that specimens from the Mobile Bay area may be intermediate. Found in tall grass, sawgrass, floating vegetation, marshes and swamps.

Ref.: Levi 1976.


Araneus bicentenarius LR, PC

Synonym: Aranea kisatchia.

Notes: Builds large webs on trees in woods. This is probably our largest orb weaver. The largest specimens of this species have come from the southern states.

Ref.: Levi 1971.


Araneus bivittatus LR

Synonym: Epeira bivattata.

Notes: Recorded from northeastern Alabama.

Ref.: Levi 1973.


Araneus bonsallae GL

Synonyms: Epeira bonsalle, Conepeira unica.

Notes: Known from Georgia, Louisiana and Florida, this species almost certainly occurs in Alabama.

Ref.: Levi 1973.


Araneus cingulatus GL

Synonyms: Epeira cingulata, Conepeira marilandica.

Notes: Recorded from Georgia, Florida and Mississippi. Its occurrence in Alabama is likely.

Ref.: Levi 1973.


Araneus cavaticus LR

Synonym: Epeira cavatica.

Notes: Recorded from northeastern Alabama. Webs are built under overhanging cliffs, on barns, porches and bridges.

Ref.: Levi 1971.


Araneus detrimentosus LR

Synonyms: Epeira detrimentosa, E. nigrohumeralis, E. tranquilla, E. linteata.

Notes: Recorded from Mobile Bay area.

Ref.: Levi 1973, 1991a.


Araneus gadus LR

Synonym: Conepeira marilandica.

Notes: Recorded from Hale County. Most often collected on Pinus sp.

Ref.: Levi 1973.


Araneus gemmoides LR

Synonym: Araneus canmorus.

Notes: This species is distributed mainly in the western and midwestern U.S. A few scattered records elsewhere, including Silver Hill, Baldwin County, Alabama are known (Nelson 1945).

Ref.: Levi 1971.


Araneus guttulatus LR

Synonyms: Epeira guttulata, Conepeira glyphica.

Notes: Recorded from central portion of state. Known from a variety of woodland and swamp habitats in the eastern U.S.

Ref.: Levi 1973.


Araneus juniperi LR

Synonyms: Epeira juniperi, Singa floridana, Conepeira bivittata.

Notes: Recorded from northeastern Alabama. Most often collected from wasp nests, but also on Juniperus sp.

Ref.: Levi 1973.


Araneus marmoreus LR, PC

Synonyms: Aranea tusigia, Epeira raji.

Notes: Holarctic distribution. Levi noted several records in the northern half of the state. Varies considerably in color and pattern. Said to prefer "tall meadows," but in Alabama often occurs in wooded habitats, although usually in earlier successional stages.

Ref.: Levi 1971.


Araneus miniatus LR

Synonyms: Epeira miniata, E. floridensis, Conepeira miniata.

Notes: Male type specimens (E. scutulata) from Alabama (destroyed). Occurs in much of the southeastern U.S. and has been recorded from southwestern and northeastern Alabama.

Ref.: Levi 1973.


Araneus niveus LR

Synonyms: Epeira nivea, Conepeira nivosa.

Notes: Records from northern half of state. Known from a variety of woodland habitats in much of the eastern U.S.

Ref.: Levi 1973.


Araneus partitus GL

Synonyms: Epeira partita, Conepeira partita.

Notes: Recorded from Mississippi, Florida, and Georgia. Its occurrence in Alabama is likely.

Ref.: Levi 1973.


Araneus pegnia LR

Synonyms: Epeira pegnia, Neosconella solersioides.

Notes: Records from Mobile Bay area and from east-central Alabama. Collected in wet sites.

Ref.: Levi 1973, 1991a.


Araneus prunus LR

Notes: Recorded from Baldwin County (female paratypes).

Ref.: Levi 1973.


Araneus thaddeus LR

Common name: lattice spider

Synonyms: Epeira thaddeus, Neosconella thaddeus.

Notes: Female type (E. thaddeus) from Alabama (destroyed). Several records in northern half of state. It occurs throughout most of the eastern U.S., excluding peninsular Florida.

Ref.: Levi 1973, 1991a.


Araneus trifolium LR

Synonyms: Epeira vulpecula, Aranea gosogana.

Notes: Found in meadows and field edges with web in herbaceous plants. It is found primarily in the northern states, but is also recorded from east-central Alabama.

Ref.: Levi 1971.


Araniella displicata LR

Synonyms: Araneus displicatus.

Notes: This species has been recorded from cotton fields in Alabama.

Ref.: Skinner 1974.


Argiope aurantia LR, PC

Common name: garden spider

Notes: A common spider in eastern and extreme western U.S. Occurs in a variety of habitats throughout Alabama. The only member of the genus typically associated with human habitation.

Ref.: Levi 1968.


Argiope florida LR, PC

Synonym: Argiope seminola.

Notes: Found in dry, sandhill habitats. Recorded from Mobile Bay area and south central Alabama. I have collected it in Conecuh National Forest, in Escambia County.

Ref.: Levi 1968.


Argiope trifasciata LR, PC

Synonyms: A. simplex, A. abalosi, A. stenogastra.

Notes: Occurs throughout the U.S. More common in lower, moister, more open habitats than other members of the genus in Alabama.

Ref.: Levi 1968.


Colphepeira catawba LR

Synonyms: Epeira catawba, Araneus catawba.

Notes: Recorded from Cherokee and Tuscaloosa counties. Builds a horizontal, orb web near the ground, between tree roots in open woods with grassy undergrowth (Archer 1941).

Ref.: Levi 1978.


Cyclosa bifurca LR

Synonyms: Cyrtophora bifurca, Cyclosa fissicauda.

Notes: Recorded from Alabama

Ref.: Gertsch 1960.


Cyclosa caroli LR

Synonyms: Epeira caroli.

Notes: Female types (E. caroli) from Alabama (destroyed). This species is distributed in the southeastern U.S. and Mexico. It has been recorded (dot map) from central and east central Alabama.

Ref.: Gertsch 1960.


Cyclosa conica LR

Notes: Recorded from cotton fields in Alabama.

Ref.: Skinner 1974.


Cyclosa turbinata LR

Synonyms: Epeira turbinata.

Notes: In the U.S. this species is known from the eastern states and the west coast. It has been recorded (dot map) from throughout Alabama.

Ref.: Gertsch 1960.


Eriophora ravilla LR

Synonyms: Epeira circulata, E. septima.

Notes: Occurs all along the Gulf Coast, including numerous records in Florida and in Louisiana. Type specimens (E. septima) from Alabama (lost). It has been collected in live oak, scrub and hammock habitats.

Ref.: Levi 1970.


Eustala anastera LR

Synonyms: Epeira anastera, E. eustala.

Notes: This species occurs in southern Canada, the U.S. and Mexico. It probably occurs throughout the state.

Ref.: Gertsch 1960, Skinner 1974.


Eustala cepina LR

Synonyms: Epeira cepina.

Notes: This species of the eastern U.S. and Mexico occurs throughout Alabama.

Ref.: Gertsch 1960.


Eustala emertoni LR

Synonyms: Epeira emertoni.

Notes: Types (Epeira emertoni) from Alabama (lost). This species occurs from the eastern U.S. to Texas. It is known from central and southwestern Alabama.

Ref.: Gertsch 1960.


Gasteracantha cancriformis LR, PC

Common name: crab-like or spiny-bodied orb weaver

Synonyms: Plectana elipsoides.

Notes: Occurs in much of the southern U.S., including most of Alabama. It is found mainly in wooded habitats.

Ref.: Levi 1978.


Gea heptagon LR

Synonyms: Epeira heptagon, Gea praedicta.

Notes: Occurs in much of the southeastern U.S.

Ref.: Levi 1968.


Hypsosinga rubens LR

Synonyms: Epeira rubens.

Notes: Occurs throughout the eastern U.S.

Ref.: Levi 1972.


Hypsosinga singaeformis LR

Synonyms: Araneus singaeformis, Singa singaeformis, S. orotes.

Notes: Dot map with record in Mobile Bay area.

Ref.: Levi 1972.


Kaira alba GL

Synonyms: Epeira alba, Caira alba.

Notes: Not reported from Alabama, but its presence in Florida, Mississippi, Arkansas and North Carolina indicates a high likelihood of its occurrence in Alabama. Levi's 1993 dot map shows a record on the Florida-Alabama border in the southeastern corner of the state.

Ref.: Levi 1977b, 1993b, 1993c.


Larinia directa LR

Synonyms: Epeira directa, Drexelia directa.

Notes: Occurs in much of the southern U.S. Recorded from Mobile Bay area and central Alabama. Type specimens from Alabama (destroyed). Often collected in herbaceous vegetation.

Ref.: Skinner 1974, Levi 1975, Harrod et al. 1991a.


Larinioides cornutus LR

Synonyms: Aranea foliata, Cyphepeira cornuta, Epeira foliata.

Notes: This continent-wide species has been recorded from Alabama.

Ref.: Skinner 1974, Grasshoff 1983, Dondale et al. 2003.


Larinioides sclopetarius LR

Synonyms: Araneus sericatus, Araneus undatus.

Notes: This Holarctic species has been recorded from cotton fields in Alabama.

Ref.: Skinner 1974.


Mangora gibberosa LR

Synonyms: Epeira gibberosa, Abbotia gibberosa.

Notes: Occurs throughout the eastern half of the U.S. Recorded from central and southern Alabama. More commonly collected in fields than in wooded habitats.

Ref.: Levi 1975.


Mangora maculata LR

Synonyms: Mangora ornata, Epeira maculata, Abbotia maculata.

Notes: Occurs in most of the eastern U.S. Records throughout the state. Collected in a variety of mesic habitats and in agricultural fields.

Ref.: Skinner 1974, Levi 1975.


Mangora placida LR

Synonyms: Epeira placida.

Notes: Occurs in a variety of habitats throughout the eastern U.S. Several records in the state.

Ref.: Levi 1975.


Mangora spiculata LR

Synonyms: Epeira spiculata.

Notes: Occurs in much of the southeastern U.S. Records exist from the Mobile Bay area and from the northern half of Alabama, where it has been collected in "oak, pine hammock woods."

Ref.: Levi 1975.


Mastophora archeri LR

Notes: Often confused with M. cornigera. Male allotype from Lagoon, Baldwin Co., Alabama, where it was swept from Myrica. Also known from Mobile and Mt. Vernon in Mobile County.

Ref.: Gertsch 1955, Levi 2003.


Mastophora bisaccata LR

Notes: Distributed in the eastern U.S. Recorded by Gertsch (1955) from Chattahoochee River, Houston Co., Alabama, but this record not listed by Levi (2003).

Ref.: Gertsch 1955, Levi 2003.


Mastophora cornigera LR

Synonyms: Epeira cornigera.

Notes: Female type (E. cornigera) from Alabama ("undoubtedly destroyed"). Distributed in southern U.S. from Alabama and the lower Mississippi Valley westward into southern California and northern Mexico. In Alabama, reported from Spring Hill, Mobile,and Tuscaloosa by Gertsch (1955) but the latter record not listed by Levi (2003).

Ref.: Archer 1941, Gertsch 1955, Levi 2003.


Mastophora hutchinsoni LR

Notes: Often confused with M. cornigera. Its distribution is the eastern U.S. from New Hampshire west to Minnesota and south to Kansas, Alabama, and Georgia. Recorded from Lagoon, Alabama by Gertsch (1955), but no Alabama records listed by Levi (2003).

Ref.: Gertsch 1955, Levi 2003.


Mastophora phrynosoma LR

Notes: This species has also been confused with M. cornigera. Occurs in the eastern U.S. from New Hampshire and New York southward to Alabama. Recorded from Randon's Creek, Monroe Co. and Cullman, Cullman Co, but the latter record not listed by Levi (2003). Archer collected it from the upper surfaces of sassafras and hickory leaves, at least 5 1/2 feet high, on the slopes of hardwood ravines.

Ref: Gertsch 1955, Levi 2003.


Mastophora stowei LR

Notes: Recorded from Florida, Georgia and Texas by Levi (2003). This species almost certainly occurs in Alabama.

Ref: Levi 2003.


Mecynogea lemniscata LR, PC

Common name: basilica spider

Synonyms: Allepeira basilica, A. lemniscata, Linyphia lemniscata.

Notes: Adults build a horizontal, domed, closely woven orb web.

Ref.: Archer 1940a, Exline 1948, Levi 1980.


Metapeira labyrinthea LR, PC

Synonyms: Epeira labyrinthea.

Notes: Found throughout the state. Webs are usually placed in shrubs in deciduous woods.

Ref.: Levi 1977b.


Metazygia calix LR

Synonyms: Alpaida calix, Epeira calix, E. maura, Singa calix, Singa maura.

Notes: Female holotype (E. maura) from Alabama. Several records throughout Alabama. Collected in bottomland forests.

Ref.: Levi 1976.


Metazygia wittfeldae LR

Synonym: Epeira wittfeldae.

Notes: This species is distributed from the coast of Virginia south, along the Gulf Coast and into Mexico. In Alabama it is known from Baldwin and Mobile counties. It has been collected from cypress swamps, tall grass, citrus trees, canal banks, slash pine and on buildings.

Ref.: Gertsch 1960, Levi 1995.


Micrathena gracilis LR, PC

Synonyms: Epeira gracilis.

Notes: Found in deciduous forests, it occurs in the eastern half of the U.S. and throughout Alabama.

Ref.: Levi 1978, 1985.


Micrathena mitrata LR, PC

Synonyms: Epeira mitrata.

Notes: Types (E. mitrata) from Alabama (destroyed). Found in deciduous forests, it occurs in the eastern half of the U.S. and throughout Alabama.

Ref.: Levi 1978, 1985.


Micrathena sagittata LR, PC

Synonyms: Plectana sagittata.

Notes: Found in deciduous forests, it occurs in the eastern half of the U.S. and throughout Alabama.

Ref.: Levi 1978, 1985.


Neoscona arabesca LR, PC

Synonym: Epeira arabesca.

Notes: One of the most common orb weavers, it occurs throughout the U.S. Several records in Alabama.

Ref.: Berman and Levi 1971, Levi 1993a.


Neoscona crucifera LR PC

Synonym: Epeira hentzii, Neoscona hentzii.

Notes: Occurs throughout the eastern and southwestern U.S. Records from throughout Alabama.

Ref.: Berman and Levi 1971.


Neoscona domiciliorum LR PC

Synonym: E. domiciliorum.

Notes: Recorded from the southeastern corner of the state.

Ref.: Berman and Levi 1971.


Neoscona nautica LR

Synonyms: Epeira vulgaris, Neoscona vulgaris.

Notes: Records from Mobile Bay area and central Alabama.

Ref.: Berman and Levi 1971, Levi 1993a.


Neoscona pratensis LR

Synonyms: Epeira pratensis.

Notes: Known from Florida, Louisiana and North Carolina, this species is likely to occur in Alabama.

Ref.: Berman and Levi 1971, Levi 1993a.


Ocrepeira ectypa LR

Synonyms: Epeira ectypa, E. infumata, Wixia ectypa.

Notes: Type specimens (E. infumata) from Alabama. Collected in mesic woods and other habitats. Levi showed a dot in Florida, near the southeastern corner of Alabama.

Ref.: Levi 1976, 1993b..


Ocrepeira georgia LR

Synonym: Wixia georgia.

Notes: Most specimens known came from wasp's nests. Levi showed a record in northern Alabama.

Ref.: Levi 1976, 1993b.


Singa eugeni GL

Synonym: Singa rubella.

Notes: Reported from coastal marshes in both the Florida Panhandle and southern Mississippi, this species probably occurs in Alabama.

Ref.: Rey and McCoy 1983, LaSalle and de la Cruz 1985.


Singa keyserlingi LR

Synonym: Singa campestris.

Notes: Dot map with record in northwest Alabama. collected in open woods, low shrubs and by sweeping in grass.

Ref.: Levi 1972.


Verrucosa arenata LR, PC

Synonym: Epeira arenata, Epeira verrucosa,

Notes: A common woodland species, it occurs throughout the eastern U.S. as well as in Central America. Syntypes (E. verrucosa) from Alabama.

Ref.: Levi 1976.


Wagneriana tauricornis LR

Notes: Distributed in the Gulf states of U.S. as well as in Central and South America. Collected mainly in shrubs and trees.

Ref.: Levi 1976, 1991b.
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CLUBIONIDAE (including Corinnidae and Miturgidae)

Castianeira amoena LR

Synonyms: Corinna amoena, Herpyllus marmoratus.

Notes: Types (H. marmoratus) from Alabama (lost). Records (dot map) in central Alabama and Mobile Bay area.

Ref.: Reiskind 1969.


Castianeira cingulata LR

Synonym: Herpyllus zonarius.

Notes: Types (H. zonarius) from Alabama (lost). Found under logs and in litter in a variety of forest habitats. Recorded (dot map) from north central Alabama.

Ref.: Reiskind 1969.


Castianeira descripta GL

Synonym: Sphasus vittatus.

Notes: This species occurs in much of the eastern U.S., from Maine to Florida and as far west as Texas and Olkahoma. It is considered likely to occur in Alabama, even though there are no published records for the state.

Ref.: Reiskind 1969.


Castianeira longipalpa LR

Synonym: Herpyllus longipalpus.

Notes: Type specimens (H. longipalpus) from Alabama (lost). This species occurs in much of the eastern and northwestern U.S. It has been collected from leaf litter, under stones and on the ground in a variety of habitats.

Ref.: Reiskind 1969.


Cheiracanthium inclusum LR

Synonym: Clubiona inclusa.

Notes: "All but the most northern parts of the U.S..." Alabama records include: Grove Hill, Moundsville, Birmingham, Auburn, Clearcreek, Pea River Project, Silver Hill. Collected on shrubs and low vegetation in moist woods.

Ref.: Edwards 1958.


Cheiracanthium mildei LR

Notes: Probably introduced in this country. Recorded from Colbert Co., Alabama.

Ref.: Edwards 1958.


Clubiona abbotii LR

Synonym: Clubiona bufonis.

Notes: A common and widespread species. Edwards felt that several subspecies existed. Alabama records include: Andalusia, Hatchet Creek, Auburn, S. of Ariton, Mobile.

Ref.: Edwards 1958.


Clubiona dyasia LR

Notes: Male type specimen from Dyas Creek, Baldwin County, Alabama.

Ref.: Edwards 1958.


Clubiona maritima LR

Synonym: Clubiona transversa.

Notes: Recorded from Colbert County, Alabama. Found under stones and ground debris.

Ref.: Edwards 1958.


Clubiona obesa LR

Synonym: Clubiona triloba.

Notes: Recorded from Hatchet Creek, Coosa County. Usually found on leaves and branches of low bushes in deciduous woods or in tall grass. Overwinters under logs, stones, bark and debris.

Ref.: Edwards 1958.


Clubiona procteri LR

Synonym: Clubiona hilltonia.

Notes: Recorded from Silver Hill, Alabama.

Ref.: Bryant 1946, Edwards 1958.


Clubionoides excepta LR

Synonym: Clubiona pallens.

Notes: Syntypes (C. pallens) from Alabama (lost). Records from Tuscaloosa, Dauphin Island, Mobile, Clear Creek, Cheaha State Park, E. of Opelika. Usually found under stones, loose bark, dead leaves and other ground debris.

Ref.: Edwards 1958.


Myrmecotypus lineatus GL

Notes: Recorded from Florida (Jackson Co.) near the southeastern corner of Alabama. It is considered likely to occur in Alabama.

Ref.: Reiskind 1969.


Strotarchus piscatorius LR, PC

Synonyms: Clubiona piscatoria, Marcellina piscatoria.

Notes: Types (C. piscatoria) from Alabama (lost). Found under stones, in trees, and in pitcher plants. Alabama records include: Alberta City, Auburn, Opelika, Perdido.

Ref.: Edwards 1958.


Trachelas similis LR

Synonym: Trachelas laticeps.

Notes: Occurs throughout the southeastern U.S. and Central America. In Alabama, it has been recorded from Baldwin Co., Clarke Co., Conecuh Co., Coosa Co., Covington Co., Dekalb Co., Hale Co., Houston Co., Lee Co., Lowndes Co. It is usually found in tubular retreats in litter and in rolled leaves of shrubs.

Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1974.


Trachelas tranquillus LR

Synonyms: Clubiona tranquilla, Trachelas ruber.

Notes: Recorded from Madison County in Alabama. Frequently occurs in houses.

Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1974.


Trachelas volutus GL

Notes: Because it is known from Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas and along the Gulf of Mexico, this species is considered likely to occur in Alabama.

Ref.: Platnick and Shadab 1974.
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