Chapter 7, Slide F - Voice Differences

F. Classification systems - by etiology

a. Organic

  1. Edema: Swelling, caused by vocal abuse or illness. Treatment: rest, will normally subside on its own.
  2. Nodules: callous-like growths that start as blisters caused by repeatedly striking the folds together with too much force, i.e., vocal abuse.
  3. Polyps: soft, fluid filled sacks that result from submucosal hemorrhage. May be caused by one abusive event, such as screaming.
  4. Trauma: accident or ingesting caustic agent, such as household cleaners.