Jumping Into Fluency With Frog and Toad

Growing independence and Fluency



The purpose of this lesson is to help students develop into fluent readers. Fluency is an important aspect of reading and in order to read smoothly students need to develop automatic word recognition. Once students can recognize words automatically they can begin to read faster, smoother, and more expressive. Students will also develop skills to read silently, which is roughly twice as fast as oral reading. When students can read fluently, effortlessly and automatically, they will be able to comprehend the story better instead of concentrating on every work. Repeating readings are a very important step in developing fluency and this lesson will explain how to use repeated readings and other decoding skills to read a decodable chapter book.



Copy of Frog and Toad Are Friends text for each student

Stopwatch for each pair of students

Fluency checklist with time slot for each student

Cover up critter for each student

Copy of poem for each student "Little Bees" (attached)



1.     Say: "To become expert readers we must learn to read fluently. It is important to learn how to read fluently so that you can understand the story you are reading, people will enjoy listening to you read, and you can develop into a faster reader. We will practice reading fluently by rereading our story and using our decoding skills we have learned. Repeated reading is when you read, read, and reread to get better each time. You and a partner will practice this by taking turns today.

2.     Say: To read a text fluently we will need to review our decoding skills. When we come across a word we do not know we need to crosscheck it and reread it. I will demonstrate how we crosscheck a word we come across and do not know what it is. If my word is bunch and I have never seen this word I will need to use my cover up critter. With my cover up critter I will separate the phonemes and then blend them together, like this: b/u/n/ch. I heard four sounds in that word. Now I will blend them to say the word: buunnch. I need to say it one more time to say the word fluently: bunch. Did you see the difference from the first time and the last time? Great! Now I will model for you how to read sentences fluently in a poem we are going to practice with."


"The first paragraph is what I am going to read and then you and your partner will practice reading the second one and we will all read it out loud together to check if we are reading it fluently. I need to decode, crosscheck, and reread": Three little bees, up in the trees. Drinking cups of tea that they sat on their knees. "I will use my cover up critter for the words I do not know. Th/r/ee l/i/tt/l/e bees, up in the t/r/ee/s. D/r/i/n/k/ing cups of t/e/a that they sat on their k/n/ee/s. Whoo that was hard! But I know I can read it now that I have read the words once. Thrreee lliittlle bees, up in the trreees. Drriinnking cups of tea that they sat on their kkknnneees. I think I can read it better now! Three little bees, up in the trees. Drinking cups of tea that they sat on their k-nees, oh KNEES! "

"This time I want you and your partner to look at your copy and read the paragraph highlighted just like I did. If you come across a word use your cover up critter, crosscheck, and then reread it!"

3.     Say: "Today we are going to read the first chapter in Frog and Toad Are Friends. Book talk: This book involves two main characters Frog and Toad. Frog is excited that spring has just begun. He has planned many activities that he and his friend Toad will do. The problem is that Toad does not want to wake up. What ways will frog try to wake him up? Will he be successful or will he spend spring all alone? You have to read to find out.


4.     Make sure every student has a text, cover up critter, and a fluency checklist. Give each pair a stop watch and say: "You will read the text with your partner by taking turns. You will each read the text three times to practice fluency. While one person reads, the other should be listening and using their reading checklist. The reading checklist asks you to notice if your partner is reading faster and smoother, remembering more words, and reading with expression each time. Be sure to put your partner's name and your name in the spaces provided. After you both have read the text all three times, discuss what you read with your partner! Use these questions for the discussion: What ways did Frog try to wake Toad? What was your favorite part of the chapter? What do you think will happen next?



The teacher will walk around the room analyzing how each group is working. After the students finish working and timing each other I will ask them individually to come up and read a portion of the book to me. While the student is reading to me I will keep a running record to analyze how their reading has improved. I will also evaluate their check sheets and use the formula for how many words they read correctly: words X 60/ seconds.

Comprehension Questions:

What is happening at the beginning of the story?

Why does Frog want Toad to wake up?

How does Frog try to wake up Toad?



Crenshaw, Beth. Ready, Set, Race to Read.



            Smith, Blair. Junie B. Jones is Captain Fluency.         http://auburn.edu/%7Ebms0009/bsmithgf2.htm








Lee, Alisha. Little Bees Poem


Long e Little Bees Fluency Poster




Murray, Dr. Bruce. Developing Reading Fluency. http://www.auburn.edu/academic/education/reading_genie/fluency.html



Label, Arnold. Frog and Toad are Friends. Harper Collins Publishing. 1979.






 Return to the rendezvous index