Early Civilization in the Middle East (Mesopotamia)
the "foundation" civilization


A geographical term: the broad plain watered by the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

    Babylonia: The lower reaches of the plain, where the two rivers converge
        Akkad: the northern part of the region (modern Baghdad)
        Sumer: the southern part (the delta of the river system: Kuwait and part of Saudia Arabia)

Sumerians: establish the first  city-states: Ur, Babylon, Kish, Uruk and others



Cuneiform Writing

Epic of Gilgamesh

Mesopotamian Science and Math

Hummurabi's Law Code       lex talionis

Mesopotamian Art


Abraham of Ur

Israelites: the Hebrews in the land of Palestine

King David (1000 - 970 BCE)
King Solomon (970-930 BCE)


Moses: Ten Commandments



Israel and Judah

Bablylonian Exile: Jews

Phoenicians and the Land of Canaan

Cities: Tyre, Beirut

Alphabetic Script

Egypt: The Gift of the Nile




Cataract: rapids and waterfalls

3000 BCE: United Kindgom of Egypt
    Capital: Memphis

Egyptian Political History: Timeline

 Pharaoh = King

Egyptian Enginnering: The Pyramids

Egyptian Daily Life






Study suggestions for this chapter:  You should be able to identify the terms and people discussed above and in the text book.  Think about the ways in which Egypt and Mesopotamia were different.  In what ways were they similiar?  Can you identify "cultural heritage" that survives from these early cultures?