"New" World: The Merging of Europe, America and Africa

The Nature of Spanish Conquest: based on the Reconquista

The Caribbean: First Contact sets the pattern
    The Tainos (Arawaks)
    Hispaniola (modern Haiti and Dominican Republic)
        Encomienda System
        1518: Smallpox Epidemic
            Caribbean population est. at six million in 1492
            Caribbean population of native peoples est. at a few thousand by 1540s

The Conquistadors ("conquerors")
    Juan Ponce de Leon and Florida
        -in search of land and slaves
        -discovers La Florida in 1513
        -wounded by Calusa in 1521 and later dies

    Hernan Cortez: 1519 - 1521: The Conquest of Mexico
    Francisco Pizarro: 1532 - 1533: The Conquest of Peru

Why are the Conquistadors so successful when the Indians outnumber them?
    1. Better weapons and technology.
    2. They work to exploit division among native peoples.
            Mexica and Inca not popular.
            Spanish ally with subject tribes.
    3. Disease.
    4. Psychological Shock of conquest.
    5. Ruthless, daring and luck.

    One who didn't conquer: Hernando de  Soto, 1539 - 1543
        Battle of Mabila
        Discovers Mississippi River for Spain

 Spanish  Colonial Administration

Two Administrative Regions
    1. New Spain (Mexico)
    2. New Castile (Peru)
Ruled by Viceroy
Audiencias (courts)

Treaty of Tordesillas
    Pope divides the world: see AU text, p. 459
    Map

Society in the Americas

    Iberian Colonies
        Est. themselves as dominate culture and incorporate native peoples
 
    North America: English, French and Dutch compete
        1. seek passages to Asia
        2. seek to exploit natural resources: cod fisheries, timber and naval stores
        3. trade with native peoples
        4. agricultural settlements

    The Dutch
    1609: Henry Hudson claims Hudson River valley for the Netherlands
    1627: New Amsterdam founded on Manhattan Island (later New York City)

    The French
    1534: Jacques Cartier: explores the St. Lawrence River in Canada
    1562 - 1564: French Huguenots attempt a settlement in Florida: driven out
            by the Spanish
    1608: Samuel de Champlain est. Quebec
    1702: Colony of Mobile

    The English
    1497 - 1498: John Cabot explores Newfoundland to Virginia and claims it for England
    1607: Jamestown is first successful English colony
    1620: Pilgrims land at Plymouth
    1630: Puritans arrive in Massachusetts
 
Differences between Northern and Iberian Colonies
    1. Iberian colonies have royal backing while more private investment in the north.  As a result, less royal control of government.
    2. More religious diversity: Huguenots, Dissenters, Catholics
    3. Different relationship with native peoples.
        -Based more on trade than incorporation.
            Example: Spanish mission system of Florida vs. English and Creek Indians
        -"Black Legend"  and the nature of native peoples: read Text, p. 451: Bartolome de Las Casas
        -English, French and Dutch do not incorporate, but take Indian land for settlement: via conquest, via treaty, via purchase

American Societies: Multi-racial and Multicultural
 
    Ethnic and Racial Mixing
        Mestizo (mixed) intermarriage btn. European and Indian
        Metis: term for European and Indian mix in French colonies
        Mulatto: intermarriage btn. European and African
        Zambo: intermarriage btn. Native and African
            And various other combinations abound

        Spanish also distinguish place of birth
            Peninsulares: migrant to America born in Europe
            Creole: individual born in America of European parents

    Multicultural
        Europeans borrow from Native Cultures
            1. Language
            2. Clothing and other items: moccasins and snowshoes
            3. Military Techniques: the "skulking way of war"
            4. African contribution: rice and agricultural skills
            5. American foods: the Columbian Exchange
 

The American Economy

Spanish Empire: Silver and Agriculture
    Silver: the mine at Potosi
        Global significance of Spanish gold and silver
        -fuels Spanish wealth and rise to power in Europe
        -stimulates global trade
    Hacienda: estates
        Encomiendas and Repartimiento

Portuguese Brasil
    Plantation Economy
        Sugar production
        African Slavery

North American Colonies
    Fisheries
    Fur and Hide Trade
        -trade and alliance associated
            -The Creeks and English vs. Spanish mission system in Florida
            -The Creeks fight the French-allied Choctaw
    Agriculture
        Cash crops: tobacco, rice and indigo
            Slave labor
            Indentured Servants
    Shipping: slaves and rum

Religion: Spanish actively spread Christianity to native peoples