"New" World: The Merging of Europe, America and Africa
The Nature of Spanish Conquest: based on the Reconquista
The Caribbean: First Contact sets the pattern
The Tainos (Arawaks)
Hispaniola (modern Haiti and Dominican Republic)
1518: Smallpox Epidemic
Caribbean population est. at six million in 1492
Caribbean population of native peoples est. at a few thousand by 1540s
The Conquistadors ("conquerors")
Juan Ponce de Leon and Florida
-in search of land and slaves
-discovers La Florida in 1513
-wounded by Calusa in 1521 and later dies
Hernan Cortez: 1519 - 1521: The Conquest of Mexico
Francisco Pizarro: 1532 - 1533: The Conquest of Peru
Why are the Conquistadors so successful when the Indians outnumber them?
1. Better weapons and technology.
2. They work to exploit division among native peoples.
Mexica and Inca not popular.
Spanish ally with subject tribes.
4. Psychological Shock of conquest.
5. Ruthless, daring and luck.
One who didn't conquer: Hernando de Soto, 1539 - 1543
Battle of Mabila
Discovers Mississippi River for Spain
Spanish Colonial Administration
Two Administrative Regions
1. New Spain (Mexico)
2. New Castile (Peru)
Ruled by Viceroy
Treaty of Tordesillas
Pope divides the world: see AU text, p. 459
Society in the Americas
Est. themselves as dominate culture and incorporate native peoples
North America: English, French and Dutch compete
1. seek passages to Asia
2. seek to exploit natural resources: cod fisheries, timber and naval stores
3. trade with native peoples
4. agricultural settlements
1609: Henry Hudson claims Hudson River valley for the Netherlands
1627: New Amsterdam founded on Manhattan Island (later New York City)
1534: Jacques Cartier: explores the St. Lawrence River in Canada
1562 - 1564: French Huguenots attempt a settlement in Florida: driven out
by the Spanish
1608: Samuel de Champlain est. Quebec
1702: Colony of Mobile
1497 - 1498: John Cabot explores Newfoundland to Virginia and claims it for England
1607: Jamestown is first successful English colony
1620: Pilgrims land at Plymouth
1630: Puritans arrive in Massachusetts
Differences between Northern and Iberian Colonies
1. Iberian colonies have royal backing while more private investment in the north. As a result, less royal control of government.
2. More religious diversity: Huguenots, Dissenters, Catholics
3. Different relationship with native peoples.
-Based more on trade than incorporation.
Example: Spanish mission system of Florida vs. English and Creek Indians
-"Black Legend" and the nature of native peoples: read Text, p. 451: Bartolome de Las Casas
-English, French and Dutch do not incorporate, but take Indian land for settlement: via conquest, via treaty, via purchase
American Societies: Multi-racial and Multicultural
Ethnic and Racial Mixing
Mestizo (mixed) intermarriage btn. European and Indian
Metis: term for European and Indian mix in French colonies
Mulatto: intermarriage btn. European and African
Zambo: intermarriage btn. Native and African
And various other combinations abound
Spanish also distinguish place of birth
Peninsulares: migrant to America born in Europe
Creole: individual born in America of European parents
Europeans borrow from Native Cultures
2. Clothing and other items: moccasins and snowshoes
3. Military Techniques: the "skulking way of war"
4. African contribution: rice and agricultural skills
5. American foods: the Columbian Exchange
The American Economy
Spanish Empire: Silver and Agriculture
Silver: the mine at Potosi
Global significance of Spanish gold and silver
-fuels Spanish wealth and rise to power in Europe
-stimulates global trade
Encomiendas and Repartimiento
North American Colonies
Fur and Hide Trade
-trade and alliance associated
-The Creeks and English vs. Spanish mission system in Florida
-The Creeks fight the French-allied Choctaw
Cash crops: tobacco, rice and indigo
Shipping: slaves and rum
Religion: Spanish actively spread Christianity to native peoples