A Bible study from Faithbuilders Fellowship.
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OLD AND NEW COVENANT COMPARISONS

God gave to Israel through Moses a law of complex and strict conditions which became the basis of his Covenant with them. It was foreseen to be typical of a better covenant which would accomplish all that the Law Covenant could not, and more. The New Covenant, into which believers in the sacrifice of God's son could enter, would have a new law and effective provisions. The blood of His sacrifice would enable that covenant.

The tabulation below contrasts relative features of these two covenants. Each element, office, process or service listed in the second column relates to spiritual fact or experience affecting all who have covenanted to do God's will since the inauguration of the New Covenant at Pentecost. The spiritual discernment of the faithful writers of the New Covenant books of the Bible, Matthew through Revelation, in contrast with the instruction to and experiences of the Old Covenant people recorded in Exodus through Malachi, has made possible these comparisons.


  LAW COVENANT--MADE OLD  


  NEW COVENANT--DIFFERENT, FRESH  

   1. Old covenant--2 Cor. 3:14 New Covenant--2 Cor. 3:6
   2. First covenant--Heb. 8:7; 9:1  Second covenant--Heb. 8:7; 10:1-9
   3. Came by Moses--John 1:17  Came by Christ--Heb. 8:6; 9:15
   4. Law of Moses--Acts 13:38,39  Law of Christ--Gal. 6:2
   5. Law of sin--Rom. 7:23; 8:2  Law of righteousness--Rom. 9:30,31
   6. Law of the flesh--Rom. 7:5,6  Law of the spirit--Rom. 8:2
   7. Not of faith--Gal. 3:12  Law of faith--Rom. 3:27
   8. Yoke of bondage--Gal. 5:1  Law of liberty--James 1:25
   9. Ended by Christ--Rom. 10:4  Estab. by Christ--Heb. 8:6; 10:9
  10. Law of death--2 Co.3:7; Ro.8:2  Law of life--Gal. 3:11;6:8
  11. Entangles--Gal. 5:1  Makes free--John 8:32,36
  12. A shadow--Col. 2:14-17  The reality--Heb. 10:1-18
  13. Fulfilled--Mat. 5:17,18  Now in force--Heb. 8:6; 10:9
  14. People left imperfect--Hb.7:19  Makes perfect--Heb. 7:19
  15. Glorious--2 Cor. 3:7  More glorious--2 Cor. 3:8-10
  16. Powerless to save--Hb.9:9;10:4  Saves to uttermost--Heb. 7:25
  17. Many sacrifices--Heb. 9:12,13  One sacrifice for sins--Heb. 10:12
  18. Temporary priest--Heb. 7:23  Eternal priest--Heb. 7:17
  19. Remembers sins--Heb. 10:3  Forgets sins--Heb. 8:12; 10:17
  20. Yearly atonement--Heb. 10:3  Eternal atonement--Heb. 10:14
  21. Priests have sin--Heb. 5:1-4  Sinless priest--Heb. 7:26
  22. Aaronic priesthood--Heb. 7:11  Melchisedec--Heb. 5:5-10; 7:21
  23. Out of Levi--Heb. 7:11  Out of Judah--Heb. 7:14
  24. Animal sacrifices--Heb. 9:12  Human sacrifice--Heb. 9:14-28
  25. Earthly tabernacle--Heb. 9:2  Heavenly tabernacle--Heb. 8:2
  26. Imperfect mediator--Gal. 3:19  Sinless mediator--1 Tim. 2:5
  27. No inheritance--Rom. 4:13  Eternal inheritance--Heb. 9:15
  28. Instituted upon animal blood
-- Heb. 9:16-22
 Instituted upon blood of Christ
-- Mat. 26:28
  29. Law of works--Rom. 3:27  Law of grace and faith--John 1:17
  30. Works wrath--Rom. 4:15  Saves from wrath--Rom. 5:9
  31. Non-redeeming--Heb. 10:4  Redeems--Gal. 3:13; Heb. 9:12-15
  32. Non-pleasing--Psa. 40:6  Pleasing to God--Heb. 10:5-18
  33. Abolishment predicted--Is.51:6  Establishment predicted--Heb. 8:7
  34. Circumcision--Exod. 12:48  No circumcision--Rom. 4:9-12
  35. Changeable--Heb.7:12; Gal.3:25  Made eternal--Heb. 13:20
  36. Faulty--Heb. 8:7  Perfect--James 1:25
  37. Weak--Heb. 7:18  Strong--Heb. 7:25
  38. Unprofitable--Heb. 7:18  Profitable--Heb. 7:19,25
  39. Natural program--Heb. 9:10-14  Spiritual program--2 Cor. 3:6,18
  40. Daily program--Heb. 7:27  Finished program--Heb.10:10-18
  41. Infirm priests--Heb. 5:2, 7:28  Perfect high priest--Heb.7:26
  42. Priests by law--Heb. 7:12,28  Made priests by oath--Heb.7:21,28
  43. No salvation--Heb. 10:2-4  Eternal salvation--Heb.5:9; 10:10
  44. Perfected nothing--Heb. 7:19  Perfects faithful--Hb.7:19; 10:14
  45. Earthly priests--Heb. 5:1-4  Heavenly priest--Heb. 9:24; 10:12
  46. Repeated inability--Heb. 10:11  Glorious success--Heb. 10:10-18
  47. Many offerings--Heb. 9:7  One offering--Heb. 10:10-14
  48. Good promises--Deut. 28:1-14  Better promises--Heb. 8:6
  49. A good covenant--Rom. 7:12  A better covenant--Heb. 7:22; 8:6
  50. Many high priests--Heb. 7:23  One high priest--Heb. 7:24-28
  51. Typical tabernacle--Heb. 9  True tabernacle--Heb. 8:2; 9:11
  52. No mercy--Heb. 10:28  Complete mercy--Heb. 8:12
  53. Handmade things--Heb. 9:1-5,24  Not handmade--Heb. 9:23,24
  54. An old way--Heb. 8:13  New and living way--Heb. 10:19,20
  55. Unavailing ministers--Heb.7:18  Able ministers--2 Cor. 3:6
  56. Carnal ministry--Heb. 9:9,10  Spiritual ministry--2 Cor. 3:6
  57. Ministration of condemnation
-- 2 Cor. 3:9
 Ministration of righteousness
-- 2 Cor. 3:9
  58. Glory covered--2 Cor. 3:13  Glory uncovered--2 Cor. 3:18
  59. Brings bondage--Gal. 4:24,25  Brings liberty--2 Cor. 3:17
  60. Cannot justify--Gal. 2:16  Does justify--Acts 13:38,39
  61. Brings a curse--Gal. 3:10  Redeems from the curse--Gal. 3:13
  62. Live by works--Gal. 3:10  Live by faith--Gal. 3:11
  63. Cannot give life--Gal. 3:21  Does give life--John 6:63-68
  64. Exposes sin--Gal. 3:19  Covers sin--Rom. 4:1-8
  65. Under law--Rom. 6:14,15  Under grace--Gal. 3:22-25
  66. Done away--2 Cor. 3:7-14  Not done away--2 Cor. 3:11
  67. Abolished--2 Cor. 3:13  Continues glorious--2 Cor. 3:11
  68. Ministry of death--2 Cor. 3:7  Reconciliation ministry--2 Co.5:18
  69. Only for Israel--Dt.4:7,8; 5:3  For all men--Lk. 22:20; Mk. 14:2


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