Frog and Toad are Fluent Friends

Growing Independence and Fluency

Ava Sewell

Rationale:  Students read slowly when they first begin reading, but increase speed as words become more effortless and automatic. As children learn to decode, words turn into sight vocabulary making reading more simple and enjoyable. Fluency is reached by a series of decoding words, making sight vocabulary, scaffolding, readings and re-readings. As children become fluent, comprehension is in reach motivating young readers. 


Class set of Frog and Toad Are Friends (one per student)

Stopwatch  (one per pair of students)


Smart board

Fluency rubric for each child

Reading Progress Chart:


1. Introduce the lesson by explaining what it means to be a fluent reader. 

‘Today, we are going to practice reading more fluently.  Fluently means that you are reading faster with less mistakes and more enthusiasm, it helps you understand the story. The Result of fluency is automatic word recognition. Fluent readers read quickly. Their reading is also very effortless and automatic.  (Write the following on the board: The frog and the toad were best friends!)  A beginning reader sounds like this when

 reading the sentence on the smart board: ‘teeee te the, frooog frog and te the tood taaad toa toad were best frreends frin friends.’ A beginning reader who can read the words automatically might say The frog and toad are best friends’  but sound like a robot or read without expression, but a fluent reader who recognizes words automatically and reads with expression sounds like this: ‘The frog and toad are BEST friends!!’  Fluent readers sounds like this because they are able to read the words effortlessly and automatically.  The only way to become fluent is to practice reading. The more practice that you have with a book, the faster you are able to read it. Today we are going to practice this with a partner.  

2. First say: ‘Today we are going to review the cover up critter strategy class. Who remembers how we use our cover up critters?’ I will model using the same sentence on the smart board. ‘If you cannot read the word toad, we can use our cover up critter like this: start with t then uncover your vowel sounds /t/ /oa/ /d/, toad!’ ‘Now whisper to your neighbor how you would uncover frog if you did not know how to read it.’

3. Tell the students: ‘To understand what we have read, we cannot just concentrate on reading fast.  We can crosscheck what we read to make sure our sentence makes sense.’ I will model crosschecking with our sentence. ‘ (The frog and the toad are best friends!) We may read (The frog and the tod are best friends.) What is a tod? That doesn’t make much sense. Lets read it again and crosscheck to see if we can make sense of it. (The frog and the toad are friends.) That makes more sense.’

4. Break the class up into pairs. Then give each child the book Frog and Toad are Friends, and the fluency rubric. Tell the children that they will be reading the first story called ‘Spring.’ I will give a short booktalk: ‘Frog and Toad are good friends. One day Frog goes to Toads house to wake him up to come out to play because it is spring time. Toad is too tired though. See how Frog can get Toad out of his bed.’

5. The students will partner read aloud in their groups the story first. Then, they will take turns either reading, or being the recorder. The person who is not reading, the recorder, will write down how long it takes the reader to read the story using the stopwatch.  The recorder will then make a note on the Reading Progress Chart about how many long it took the reader to read the story. Next, the partners will switch roles. And then repeat the process.

6. Let the students do the third reading. Have the partners record information on the rubrics and charts. Have the children talk to their partners about what they did better during each re-read.  

7. Collect the students’ charts and rubrics. Calculate the students’ words per minute. Have the students that did not score close to the 85wpm mark do a repeated reading one on one with the teacher for extra help. I will use words*60/seconds to find the children’s wpm.


Assessment: The repeated reading rubrics and progress charts will help me to see which children need extra help and which ones are gaining fluency.



Hayes Adams: Ameilia Bedilia Wants you to read more Fluently!


Lobel, Arnold, and Arnold Lobel. ‘Spring.’ Frog and Toad Are Friends. New York: Harper Trophy, 1979. N. pag. Print.



Name:______________________  Date:____________

 Reading Progress Chart

1st reading: ______

2nd reading: ______

3rd reading: ______


-Fluency Rubric:

Name:______________________  Evaluator:_______________________  Date: ____________


I noticed that my partner: (put an X in the blank)                                                 

                                                          After 2nd    After 3rd

Read Faster                                                ______      ______

Read Smoother                                           ______      ______

Read with Expression                                ______      ______

Remembered more words                            ______      ______


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