Salamanders:  Order Caudata

The first group are the easiest to identify.  They are found in water their entire lives and all have external gills or openings on the side of the neck where gills used to be. The sirens have no hind legs, amphiumas have thin wispy legs, and the waterdogs have four toes on all four feet.
Eastern Hellbender
Broad, flat heads and folds of skin on the sides.  No external gills.
One, Two, and Three-toed Amphiumas
External openings for gills but no gills present, tiny front and hind limbs.  Count the number of toes to determine if it's a 1, 2, or 3 toed amphiuma.
Lesser Siren
External gills, no hind legs, short stubby arms, and 18 to about 69 cm.
Greater Siren
External gills, no hind limbs, short stubby arms, and 51-76cm.
Loding's Waterdog
Found throughout southern portion of state from Mobile to Chattahootchee River drainage; unstriped larva.
Beyer's Waterdog
Found throughout lower reaches of Alabama River drainage; unstriped larva.
Black Warrior Waterdog
Found in upper Black Warrior River drainage; striped larva.
Mudpuppy
Found in Tennessee River drainage; striped larva. 

 

If it's not one of the above, then try to identify it from the following pictures according to the predominate colors.
Black,Gray, or Brown
Black,Gray, or Brown
Yellow,Orange,White or Green
Red or Green
Flatwoods Salamander
Black body with gray or turquoise markings that look like netting or light rings.
Four-toed Salamander
Four toes on all feet, white belly with black flecks, and a constricted area at the base of the tail that looks like a string had been tightened around it.
Long-tailed Salamander
Very long tail with vertical black markingsl that are herring bone or dumb-bell shaped.  Body is yellow or orange.
Red Salamander
Purplish red, orange, or salmon color with dark freckles; white flecks near snout and on sides of head; iris is yellow.
Slimy Salamander
Skin is sticky.  Color is black with light flecks or spots.
Red Hills Salamander
Very long; body is entirely dark purplish-brown; arms and legs short and stubby.
Three-lined Salamander
Body yellowish with three bold, wide, dark stripes.
Mud Salamander
Red or reddish-brown body with round, black spots or blotches; brown eyes.
Marbled Salamander
Contrasting light and dark bands.
Seepage Salamander
Tiny with a pale yellow, tan, or reddish stripe on the back.
Southern Two-lined 
Yellow to brown back with a dark stripe on each side.
Cave Salamander
Red with a long tail and black spots; belly is yellowish and unspotted.
 
Tiger Salamander
Olive with yellowish bars on dark body; belly is lighter with dark spots.
Apalachicola Salamander
Similar to Mtn. dusky but larger; there are 10-14 pairs of light spots that touch and bordered in black.
Spotted Salamander
Black body with a row of large yellow spots on each side going from the eye to the tip of the tail.
Eastern Zig-Zag
Red to yellowish light stripe on back with zig zag or wavy border. Similar to Webster's salamander except for geographic range (see species description page).
Dusky Salamander
Light mark under eye extending back behind jaw; dark dorsal coloration shading gradually to light ventral coloration along sides.
Mole Salamander
Black to dark brown; often with numerous silver flecks; large head and feet.
 Dwarf Salamander
Four toes on all feet; yellowish stripe on back and faded dark stripes on each side.  Similar to two-lined except for the four toes on hind feet.
Southern Redbacked
Reddish stripe in center of back with a straight or scalloped border.
     
Southern Dusky Salamander
Similar to the dusky salamander but with a row of white or red spots on the sides (portholes).
Smallmouth Salamander
Small head and mouth; black with white mottling.
Tennessee Cave Salamander
External gills; very small eyes; lives in wet caves; body white or cloudy in appearance.
Webster's Salamander
Same as zigzag except location. Check species description page for counties occupied.
Seal Salamander
Light mark under eye extending back behind jaw; dark markings on back change abruptly along sides to light gray belly coloration.
Mountain Dusky Salamander
Light mark under eye extending back behind jaw (frequently faded); back is lighter than darker sides.
Green Salamander
Dark body with green, lichen-like markings; toe tips squared; found in rock crevices or rock faces.
Spring Salamander
Light pink, red, or brown; light line bordered below by dark coloration from eye to nostril.
Red-spotted newt
Olive-green or yellowish in adults; bright red-orange with red spots in juveniles; belly yellow with black spots.