Kronichthys A. Miranda Ribeiro, 1908

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Kronichthys lacerta, photo by K.S. Cummings

Kronichthys heylandi, photo by K.S. Cummings


Kronichthys is a strange group of three described species.  It is uncertain whether all three species are valid.  Armbruster and Page (1997) added Hypostomus lacerta to Kronichthysbased on examination of the type specimens.  The following is an excerpt from Armbruster (1997).


K. heylandi (Boulenger 1900)
K. lacerta (Nichols 1919)
K. subteres Miranda Ribeiro 1908


Species of Kronichthys are small, cylindrical fishes that appear similar to the hypoptopomatine Schizolecis.  Color pattern is dark brown with a slight mottling or four dorsal saddles, the first at the origin of the dorsal fin, the second just posterior to the dorsal fin, the third at the adipose fin, and the fourth at the posterior end of the caudal peduncle.  Abdomen mostly white with a few small, scattered melanophores posteriorly and near the gills, the lower surface of the caudal peduncle is brown, but lighter than the sides, and the fins are spotted or mottled.  Abdomen naked.  Pectoral girdle not exposed.  Pterotic-supracleithrum bordered posteriorly by a medium-sized naked area with only a few small plates.  Caudal fin slightly emarginate with the lower lobe slightly longer.  Five or more predorsal plates.  Three rows of plates on the caudal peduncle.  Anal fin surrounded by a large area where the skin completely covers the bony plates.  A large space posterior to the origin of the pectoral fins and the area dorsal to the pelvic fins are without plates.  Dorsal fin short.  Adipose fin small.  The sphenotic lacks an external contact with the sixth infraorbital plate, and the suprapreopercle is absent.


Kronichthys can be distinguished from Lithogenes by being completely plated laterally and dorsally, from Delturus and Hemipsilichthys by a lack of a postdorsal ridge, from Neoplecostomus by the lack of plates on the abdomen, from Pareiorhaphis by a lack of elongated odontodes along the snout margin in breeding males, from Pareiorhina by the presence of an adipose fin and the absence of an exposed section of the coracoid strut, from Hypoptopomatinae by a naked abdomen and/or a lack of a complete or nearly complete exposure of the pectoral girdle ventrally, and from most of the Hypostominae by having the spinelet reduced and rectangular (vs. triangular and large). Kronichthys can be distinguished by a lack of evertible cheek odontodes from hypostomines with apparently reduced or absent dorsal-fin spinelets,.


Armbruster, J.W. and L.M. Page. 1997.  Generic reassignment of the loricariid species Monistiancistrus carachama Fowler 1940, Plecostomus lacerta Nichols 1919, and Rhinelepis levis Pearson 1924 (Teleostei: Siluriformes). Copeia 1997:227-232.

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