Ancistrini Kner, 1853


 

Lithoxus lithoides, photo by J.W. Armbruster
TAXA LIST


  • Schaefer (1987) was the first to suggest that the continuing recognition of the Ancistrinae resulted in a paraphyletic Hypostominae.  Armbruster (2004) suggests that to alleviate the problems with paraphyly, the Ancistrinae must be returned to the Hypostominae.  To bolster the lack of subfamilial distinctiveness, Armbruster (2004) reiterates a once common belief that the Pterygoplichthys group have evertible cheek plates (most Pterygoplichthys were described in genera of Ancistrinae and most of the species of the Hemiancistrus annectens group have always been placed in Ancistrinae).  To continue to recognize the monophyly of Ancistinae, I broke the Hypostominae into several tribes.  Below are links to all of the genera in the tribe as well as some descriptive material from Armbruster (2004). 

    TAXA TABLE
     

    GENUS
    ADDITIONAL GENERA
    IN SYNONYMY
    Acanthicus  
    Ancistrus Xenocara
      Pristiancistrus
      Thysanocara
    Baryancistrus  
    Chaetostoma Hypocolpterus
      Lipopterichthys
    Cordylancistrus  
    Dekeyseria Zonancistrus
    Dolichancistrus  
    Exastilithoxus  
    Hemiancistrus Ancistomus
    Hemiancistrus landoni  
    Hopliancistrus  
    Hypancistrus  
    Lasiancistrus  
    Leporacanthicus  
    Leptoancistrus  
    Lithoxus Paralithoxus
    Megalancistrus  
    Neblinichthys  
    Panaque Panaqolus
    Scobinancistrus
    Parancistrus  
    Peckoltia Peckoltichthys
    Sophiancistrus
    Pseudacanthicus  
    Pseudancistrus Lithoxancistrus
    Guyanancistrus
    Pseudolithoxus
    Spectracanthicus Oligancistrus
    GENUS
    ADDITIONAL GENERA
    IN SYNONYMY

    Zonancistrus - Dekeyseria



    DIAGNOSIS

    Ancistrini is not diagnosed by any unique characteristics. Other characteristics considered synapomorphic but which may be lost in some taxa are: a tall levator arcus palatini crest (44-2), a vertically oriented preopercle (61-1), and contact of the frontal with the orbit (94-0). The majority of species of the Ancistrini (except Spectracanthicus) are supported by a unique synapmoprhy: a modification of the opercle into a bar or sickle-shaped structure (75-1 and 2)


    COMPARISONS

    The Ancistrini (except some Pseudancistrus and Spectracanthicus) can be separated from all other loricariids except the Pterygoplichthyini by the presence of evertible cheek plates with hypertrophied odontodes. The Ancistrini can be separated from the Pterygoplichthyini as below (see the Pterygoplichthyini description). Spectracanthicus can be separated from all other non-Ancistrini loricariids except Delturus by having the dorsal-fin membrane contacting the preadipose plate; and from Delturus by having only one preadipose plate (vs. 3+) and by having highly angled jaws (dentary angle less than 80° vs. greater than 90°). Pseudancistrus without evertible cheek plates can be separated from most of the Hypostomini, Pogonopoma parahybae, and Rhinelepis by having hypertrophied odontodes along the snout anterior of the cheek; from the Rhinelepini by having a dorsal flap of the iris present so that the eye appears bilobed (vs. dorsal flap absent, iris round); and from most of the Hypostomini, the Pterygoplichthini, and the Rhinelepini by lacking plates on the abdomen (vs. plates present).



    LITERATURE CITED

    Armbruster, J.W. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships of the suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae) with emphasis on the Hypostominae and the Ancistrinae. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 141:1-80.

    Isbrücker, I. J. H. 1980. Classification and catalogue of the mailed Loricariidae (Pisces, Siluriformes). Verslagen en Technische Gegevens, Universiteit van Amsterdam No. 22, 1-181 pp.

    Schaefer, S.A. 1987. Osteology of Hypostomus plecostomus (Linnaeus) with a phylogenetic analysis of the loricariid subfamilies (Pisces: Siluroidei). Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 394:1-31.


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