Last summer, lightning struck and killed an enormous pine tree
Last summer, lightning struck and killed an enormous pine tree on one side of my back yard. At about the same time, voracious pine bark beetles girdled and killed an equally impressive pine tree on the other side. Now bereft of needles, these two arboreal giants pose a potential threat to my house if they were to fall at just the right angle. In the interest of safety, my wife wants to have the trees removed; for the sake of promoting biodiversity on my two-acre lot, I do not.
Our personal dilemma mirrors a much larger struggle that quietly threatens to destroy the rights of private timber land owners across the United States - the desire of urban dwellers to have their figurative cake and eat it too. They demand houses made of wood, wood furniture, paper and paper products, and so on, while also demanding environmental amenities such as aesthetically pleasing landscape views, biodiversity and animal habitat. At a personal level, this can't be done.
If the trees are removed, my wife has peace of mind, but the many
animals that depend on dead pine trees for their existence, either
directly or indirectly, will vanish. If the trees stay, we will be
promoting the ecological diversity of our property, but my wife will worry
about our house with every gust of wind. We can't have it both ways.
Similarly, at a macro level, there is a trade-off between
production/consumption of timber and production/ consumption of related
However, intensively managed forests have come under heavy fire from self-proclaimed environmentalists. In these so-called plantation forests, man, not nature, regenerates the trees, which accordingly grow in even-aged stands. Their well being is affected by the application of herbicides and pesticides, as well as by occasional thinning and fire management. In contrast to naturally regenerated timber land, plantation timber land has been described as an "ecological desert," with the stated or implied conclusion that the nature and extent of biological diversity associated with natural forests is both greater and, therefore, more desirable than that associated with plantation forests.
Such pejorative rhetoric is both misleading and counter-productive. The unfortunate, but nonetheless compelling, truth is that we can't have our cake and eat it too. We must make responsible choices about what to produce and how to produce it. A serious threat to private landowners develops when citizens living in urban areas demand that private owners of timberland (located in rural areas) produce environmental amenities such as aesthetically pleasing views, biodiversity, animal habitat and the like, provided they (the urbanites) don't have to pay for it.
Further, they seek to enforce their demands by using the political process to pass regulations that require landowners disproportionately to bear the cost of producing these environmental amenities.
For example, Oregon law requires private timberland owners to replant within two years areas from which they cut trees. Other regulations forbid clear-cutting of timberland. Federal regulations pertaining to endangered species are incredibly restrictive and intrusive with respect to an individual's property rights.
The pursuit of environmental amenities that are vital, we are told, to some vaguely defined public interest through policies that impose virtually all of the costs on relatively small numbers of private landowners generates what might be termed a "tragedy of the political commons."
Garrett Hardin in 1968 introduced us to the tragedy of the commons. Hardin developed a stylized example of a communal pasture, open to all who come. There are no private property rights to the pasture, or rules, customs or norms for shared use. In this setting, shepherds seeking to maximize their holdings, keep adding sheep to their flocks as long as doing so adds an increment of gain for their particular flock. Uncoordinated in their effort, and unaware of the effects of their individual actions on others, the shepherds collectively (and innocently) destroy the pasture. What could be a story of plenty becomes instead a story of poverty.
As Hardin concludes: "Therein is the tragedy. Each man is locked into a system that compels him to increase his herd without limit - in a world that is limited. Ruin is the destination toward which all men rush, each pursuing his own best interest in a society that believes in freedom of the commons."
Man's exploitation of the political commons is analogous to his exploitation of natural resource commons. Our majority-rule voting process, which permits a majority of citizens to impose differential costs on the minority, encourages overprotection of endangered species and overproduction of biodiversity, animal habitat and landscape views. This occurs because each individual who bears a negligible portion of the costs of providing environmental amenities has a private incentive to keep demanding additional environmental protections as long as there is any perceived marginal benefit.
As with the overgrazed pasture, the result of overprotecting Bambi is, as has become apparent all over the Eastern United States, disastrous. Moreover, and not surprisingly, we are starting to hear real concern voiced about the recent proliferation of other animal species such as black bears, mountain lions and coyotes. We are creating social tragedies that result from the political commons.
The tragedy is compounded by the incentives generated for private landowners by the heavy hand of command and control policies. When private property rights are abrogated by government action, with no compensation to landowners, the adversely-affected landowners have strong incentives to mitigate their expected losses. They can do so by changing their land use from timber production to housing or commercial development.
There is no positive incentive to promote habitat for endangered species; doing so only means that use of your land will be seriously compromised. Instead, a landowner who finds a member of an endangered species on his property has a well-understood incentive to "shoot, shovel and shut up." Such behaviors are not likely to further environmental objectives. Earth's limited resources cannot provide all things to all people simultaneously. For that matter, the Earth cannot provide all things just to self-proclaimed environmentalists. Consequently, responsible choices about resource use must be made.
It is irresponsible to enact environmental policies that impose costs disproportionately on private landowners. Such policies lead to overproduction of environmental protection because urban voters who, despite what they may say in fact clearly place little value on environmental amenities, vote in favor of regulations that are written to impose little or no cost to them personally.
Further, these policies create incentives for private landowners to minimize, not maximize, their production of environmental amenities. This incentive incompatibility problem makes it less likely that public policy actually will be effective in attaining the stated objectives that form the basis for the policy.