Rationale: Phonemic awareness leads to learning to read and spell words. Phonemic awareness is not spontaneously acquired but can be taught successfully. A child’s ability to discriminate phonemes is one of the best predictors of first-year reading achievement following pre-reading letter knowledge. No matter the level of a child’s phonemic awareness, to make use of it, he or she must learn to identify the forms of each individual letter visually. Learning identities of letters takes time and practice. Big books are meant to be read over and over. This lesson will help children identify /ar/. They will learn to recognize /ar/ in spoken and written words by learning meaningful representation and a letter symbol and then practice finding and using /ar/ while reading and spelling. These activities will make the correspondence more memorable as the students review. They will get more familiar with learning to decode and use accurate finger pointing.
Materials: Primary paper and pencil; crayons and drawing paper; Book- Jane and Babe; picture page with car, star, cat, bus, mars, bat.
Procedures: 1. Introduce the lesson by explaining that when we write, our language is a secret code and we have to learn what the letters stand for. Explain the mouth moves to make sound as we make our words. Today we are going to work on spotting the way our mouth moves when we say /ar/. At first it may be hard to catch on, but as you get to know it, you will be able to point out the correspondence /ar/ in spoken and written words.
2. Ask students: Did you ever hear a pirate on a movie or TV show making the sound /ar/? That’s the mouth we are looking for in words. Let’s pretend to play a pirate and say /ar/. [close one eye while acting like holding a wheel or driving.] Make your pirate noise while you sail three times: /ar/, /ar/,/ar/.
3. Let’s try a tongue twister [on chart]. “Dark larks enjoy car trips looking at stars.” Now everyone say it three times together. Now say our tongue twister again, and this time stretch the /ar/ at the end of the words. “Daarrk laarrks enjoy caarr trips while looking at staarrs.”
4. [Have students take out primary pencil and paper]. We can use the letters A and R to spell /ar/. Lets write it. Ask students where to start on the paper (hat). Ask how far they are to draw down (shoe). Demonstrate going back up to the belt line, curve over, and back around without lifting your pencil. I want to look at everyone’s /ar/. Once I give you a smily face, I want you to make nine more just like it. When you see the letters ar in a word from now on, remember that means to say /ar/. Hand out bed worksheet and model how to distinguish the sound in words. Have students put it away with their things for further practice.
5. Now, I want to show you how to find /ar/ in the word star. I am going to stretch it out very slowly while you listen for our drum sound. Ss-tt-aarr.. There it is!
6. Call on students to answer and tell how they knew: Do you hear /ar/ in sick or far? Ball or Car? Lark or Brush? Mop or Dark? Be a pirate if you hear /ar/. Dark, Larks, enjoy, car, trips, looking, at, stars. [Point out that dark has /ar/ and trips does not] Have a letterbox lesson on these words involving the class calling on each to determine if everyone can use this strategy.
7. Say: “Jane is a woman who works at the zoo and Babe is the lion. Jane enjoys feeding and petting Babe even when he is in his cage. You will have to read to find out what happens next.” Read Jane and Babe and talk about the story. Read it again and have students point out the sounds /ar/ and the correspondence. List the words chosen on the board and then have each student draw brown bear and write a message about it to encourage invented spelling. Their work should be displayed.
8. For assessment, distribute the picture sheet, and have the students come to my desk individually and circle the pictures whose names have the correspondence /ar/. I will have them read the book to me and take notes on miscues to look at their improvements.
Reference: Beginning To Read: Thinking and Learning about Print. By: Marilyn Adams, 1990.
Pre-teaching: Mrs. King, 1st grade, Smith Station Primary School, AL, 2009.
Back to Projects