1-2-3, Reading Fluency!

Cydney Dorsey, Growing Independency & Fluency

 Expressive Monkey

Rationale: One of the major markers to becoming a successful reader is becoming a fluent reader. There are several different components to reading fluency, including: increased reading speed, reading with automaticity and accuracy, expressiveness in reading, reading fluidly, and the ability to read silently (all of these components help to increase reading comprehension). This lesson will focus on increasing student fluency through the use of repeated readings and one-minute reads. These types of activities help students build confidence when it comes to reading, increasing the fluency of their reads, and making the reading experience more pleasurable for the readers and their listeners.


-Class set of Frog & Toad are Friends

-Class set of stopwatches

-Post-It pads (one per each group)

-Monkey climbing the banana tree fluency charts for each student

(these should be laminated and the numbers written from 0-85 with a Vis-a-Via marker so that the scale may be adjusted depending upon the student’s reading level)

-Fluency Notebooks

(several of the fluency worksheets together in a "notebook" or "tablet" created by the teacher – see attached for Fluency Worksheet)



1. Introduce the lesson to the students.

Begin by explaining to the students what it means to be a fluent reader and why being a fluent reader is a very important thing.

Say: "Students, it is time to begin working on a new part of reading that is very important. We are going to begin working on becoming more fluent readers. Being a fluent reader means that you are able to read books easier and more smoothly, at the appropriate speed and with the appropriate expression. When you are a fluent reader, you can enjoy reading more, because you are able to comprehend easily." 

2. Introduce the activity.

Say: "Students, to help develop you become more fluent readers, we are going to be doing some one-minute repeated readings. This means you will be reading the same book for one minute at a time. After your minute is up each time, you will go back and count the words that you have read. Although it is important to read quickly, it is also very important to read with accuracy, and to make sure that you are understanding what you are reading." 

 3. Model a repeated reading.

Say: "Students, watch me read this piece of text several times."

 (Put 2-3 sentences of text from up on the board and read it 4 times.

Molly always wanted a puppy, but her mother and father only said, "Someday, Molly…" On her birthday, Molly woke up to something cold on her cheek, and wondered, "What is it?" She opened her eyes and saw a surprise birthday present, a puppy!

Teacher - First, read quite slow and choppy. Second, read not quite so slow, smoother, and without expression. Third, read faster, completely smoothly, and with little expression. Fourth, read faster, completely smoothly, and with appropriate expression.

Say: "Students, did you hear differences in each time I read? Which time sounded the best to you? What kind of differences did you hear?"

[Give students time to respond.]

"Yes, those are all good observations. I first worked on reading smoother and a little faster. Then, I worked on reading even faster and smoother, but added in a little expression. And finally, I read the text with an appropriate speed, smoothly, and with plenty of expression. This is an example of how repeated readings of the same text can help you improve the fluency in your reading."

 4. Introduce the book.

Say: "Frog & Toad are best friends. Frog & Toad experience many things together, including the coming of spring and losing a button. Through it all, Frog & Toad have fun and stay best friends. Read more of Frog & Toad are Friends to learn about all their amazing adventures."

Provide each student with a copy of the decodable text, Frog & Toad are Friends. They will also need their fluency chart, their fluency notebook, a stopwatch, and a pencil. Pair the students up with partners.

5. Explain the procedure.

Explain to them that as they read, their partner will be timing them for one-minute. When the minute is up, their partner will stop the stopwatch and let them know time is up. They should place a post-it note where they stopped reading and go back to where they started and count all the words in between. They should be certain to record each result on their fluency notebook sheet for that day. The partners should alternate back and forth until each one has completed 3 one-minute reads apiece. 

 6. Once the students have finished, the teacher will be calling each individual student up for a teacher-observed one-minute read of the same text. The students should work on reading the rest of the text silently while the process is completed.

Assessment: Assessment will involve the teacher’s observation and recording of the 4th and final one-minute read. The teacher will also assess by collecting the fluency notebooks and reviewing each students' records.


White, Amy. 1-2-3 Go.


Murray, Bruce.  Reading Genie:  Developing Reading Fluency.


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