Amphibian Friends
Frog and Toad

By Hanna Lane Blevins

    Rationale:  The easier it is for a student to read with fluency, which is reading smoothly, quickly and with good expression, the more likely they are to focus on comprehending the story as opposed to decoding words.  To help create fluent readers, students should do repeated timed readings, preferably one minute reads.



    1. "Class, becoming fluent readers is very important.  Fluency is being able to read smoothly, quickly, and with expression.  The more fluency you have, the more you are able to remember what the story was about!  The best way to practice fluency is to read books more than once and time yourself.  Today you will each get a stopwatch to time your partners while you read.  The more familiar our books become, the more fluent you will be!
    2. How does it sound when I read this sentence? (sentence written on white board 'I have a friend who is a big green frog.')  IIII have a finned who is a biiig grrreeeen frrroggg.  Does anyone like how I read that sentence?  I think it took way to long.  If I focus so much on the words, I wont remember the meaning of what I read.  Now let me read it fluently.  I have a friend who is a big green frog.  Now that sounds better!  Now listen to this sentence.  'I like to hang out with toads too!'  Did I read that fluently or non-fluently?  Good! I read it smoothly and with expression like a fluent reader.
    3.Today we are going to read Frog and Toad Are Friends.  This story is about a Toad and Frog and their adventures together.  They are best friends and do a lot of things together.  We will read about some of their adventures to become more fluent.  You are going to read with a partner that is sitting in your group.  Don't forget, that if you come to a word you don’t know, it is ok!  Take your time to sound out the word, cross check to make sure it fits in the sentence, and re-read the sentence to make sure you can understand its meaning."  
    4.Once students choose their partners, hand out the fluency charts and stopwatches.  Explain to the students how to use the checklists and give them a set time of one minute to read to each other.  Give them time to read the store once or twice before timing one another.  "When you are NOT reading, make sure you are following along in the story with them so you can give them the proper checks on their checklist.  You will also count how many words you read in one minute and write it on your check list.  If you need help, I will come to quiet, raised hands."

        I will have the student re-read a portion of the book to me, and compare my findings with the checklists given to me from their partner.  This will help me determine reading level, and what steps should be taken to move forward in that student’s reading plan.  


Lobel, Arnold (1970). Frog and Toad Are Friends. New York: Harper & Row

Montgomery, Morgan(2008) Take the Fluency Test with Henry and Mudge!