Smooth Sailing Through Reading

Candace Goodwin

Fluency Lesson Design

Rationale: When students begin to read they read slowly. Children become faster with decoding as their word recognition speed increases. The focus of fluency with children is for them to be able to focus on comprehending instead of struggling to decode words. Children began to read faster, read with more expression, and read more independently as they become fluent readers. Allowing children to read and then reread text that is decodable helps them to become better fluent readers. In this lesson students will gain fluency through repeated readings and also through one minute reads.


Book: Hot at the Dam for each student in class

Dry erase board

Dry erase markers

Progress chart for each student

Stopwatch for each student in class

One minute record chart for each student in class

Fluency rubric charts for each student in class

Cover-up critters if needed by students


One Minute Record Chart:


Name: ___________________________                   Date: ________________


1st minute: ________


2nd minute: ________


3rd minute: ________



Fluency Rubric Chart:


1.  I will begin the lesson by asking the students what they think fluent readers do. I will explain to the students that fluent readers read fast and also read with expression. I will then explain to the students the difference in beginner readers and fluent readers. I will then write a sentence on the dry erase program, I like to yell outside. Ask your students how a beginner reader might read this sentence. "Very good boys and girls a beginner might sound like this I llllliiiiiiikkkkkkeeeee like tttttooooooo to yyyyeeeellllll yell ooouuuttttssssiiiiidddee outside." "Some beginner readers may stumble over words that they do not recognize." Model for students how a reader would read the sentence with out expression. 'Listen to the way I say the sentence now I like to yell outside." 'Do you think that I showed expression when reading the sentence that time?" "No, I did not use any expression when I read the sentence, a lot of times readers will read a sentence fast but they will not read with any expression." Model for students how a fluent reader would read the sentence. "Listen to how a fluent reader would read this sentence, I like to yell outside." "Today boys and girls we are going to practice on becoming fluent readers." "If we read and reread book it will help us become more fluent with our reading." "Let's begin practicing."

2. I will begin by reviewing with the class how they can use cover-ups to help them decode words. Write the word crab on the dry erase board. "Will someone show me how we use our cover-up critters to help us decode words that we may not know?" "Look at the word I wrote on the board and show me how we can use the cover-up critter." "Good job we start with our short vowel /a/, we then cover up the letter a and the letters that follow it so we would cover the letters a and b." 'Now we are going to look at the letters c and r, when we blend those letters we get the cr sound." "Now we are going to add our short vowel /a/ with the c and r." "What sound do we get when we blend those three letters together?" "Good job we get the cra sound." "Now cover up the letters c,r,and a let's focus on the letter b which is the last letter in the word." "What sound does the letter b make?" "Very good it makes the /b/ sound, let's try to blend all of the sounds together now to read this word." /c/ /r/ /a/ /b/. "Good job every one you did a good job decoding and blending."


3. Write the sentence he sleeps on a bed on the dry erase board. "When becoming fluent readers we do not just need to keep our focus on reading fast." 'If I read this sentence He sleeps on the bead, I can use my crosschecking skills to determine if the sentence makes sense or not." "After reading my sentence I know that it does not make sense because you can not sleep on a bead so I will reread my sentence again but correctly this time: He sleeps on the bed.'


4. "Now I am going to pass out to each of you a copy of the book Hot at the Dam I will also pass out a one record chart and a fluency rubric chart to each of you as well." Give a book talk to your students about Hot at the Dam. 'Pam and Pat run to the dam, but their friends hop to the dam." "After they have all arrived at the dam they have become so hot they do not know what to do." "What do you think they will do?" "You are going to have to read the book to find out what happens to Pam, Pat and their friends."


5. Partner the students up with students that are close to their reading level. "Between you and your partner decide which of you will be the reader and which one of you will be the recorder?" "If you are the reader you are going to read as many words in the book as you can in one minute. If you are the recorder you are going to write or record how many words your partner reads in one minute.•À¸ If you are the recorder make sure that you record the number of words your partner reads on the one minute record sheet." "The reader will have three chances to read as many words as they can in one minute." "The reader will be able to move their basket ball player closer and closer to the goal based on the number of words they read correctly." "After the reader has read three times swap roles and allow the recorder to now be able to read as many words as they can in one minute." Model for you students how to complete this task by reading as many words as you the teacher can in one minute and then record your time on the one minute record sheet.


6. Allow your students to read the book one more time by themselves. "After each of you have finished reading the book one more time you are going to fill out the fluency rubric chart on your partner." Model for your students how to record on the fluency rubric chart. "If you are the reader you are going to read the book again and after you have finished reading the record will fill out the first part of the fluency rubric chart." "Then after the first reader has finished swap roles with your partner and repeat the process."


7. After the students have read the book two more times, have them repeat the process one last time. "After your partner has read the book for the third time, fill out the second part of the fluency rubric chart, and swap roles one last time." Have a group discussion with the class on how they thought they improved with their fluency by reading the book with their partners more than once.


8. Collect all of the one minute record charts and the fluency rubrics. I will assess the students by having each student read a passage from the book Hot at the Dam to me in the reading center for one minute. I will check the fluency of the students by using a one minute record sheet. I am also going to check the students' comprehension of the story by asking them questions about their reading from the story. While I am working with one student at a time on their one minute reading the rest of the students will be reading a book independently and practicing on their fluency.





Angel, Vernonica. Hot at the Dam


Cadrette, Mallory. A Fluency Reading Design


Murray, Bruce. Developing Reading Fluency


Haywood, Kendra. Flowing Through Fluency

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