Rationale: Phonics instruction is not only a means of teaching children to sound words out, but also of directing their attention to the spellings of words. Furthermore, children learn a great deal about both the nature and function of print through thoughtful interactions with adults (Adams). Also, children must understand that a phoneme can represent more than one grapheme. When a phoneme is mapped onto more than one grapheme, a diagraph is created. A digraph is the combination of two letters to produce one sound. This lesson will teach students to recognize that when the letters s and h are combined, the make the /sh/ sound. The goal of this lesson will be achieved by having students participate in a letterbox lesson as well as recognize /sh/ in spoken language.
Materials: *primary paper
* lower case manipulatives (can be laminated paper letters or plastic letters purchased from a store) for each student
* letterbox squares-set for each child (these are cut out from card stock and taped on the back) *note: for a group instruction, placing a Velcro dot on each letterbox square and letter manipulative allows for each student to hold up his or her word for you to assess)
*Velcro dots (optional)
*One Fish, Two Fish, Red Fish, Blue Fish by Dr. Seuss (another book which includes plenty of /sh/ words will suffice)-one book per 2 students
* teacher-made worksheet for assessment which includes various pictures containing objects that both do and do not contain /sh/ ex: ship, flip, rose, shop, fish, cake, hat, sheep
* Tongue-twister poster: Shelly shopped for fish shoes
* white board/ marker
* Sh and sh cutouts for whole class visual
* crayons for assessment
Procedures: 1. Introduce the lesson by explaining that the students are going to be using a special code for helping them spell and read words with s and h together to make /sh/. * Review previously learned diagraph if applicable. “ Today we are going to learn a clue that will help us learn how to read and spell words that have s and h together to make /sh/.
2. Ask students if they know the “quiet” sound that a teacher or mom might make to let them know to be quiet. Introduce a memorable hand gesture to help them remember what to say when they see /sh/. “ Does anyone know what we might do with our finger when we make that noise?” *If they haven’t gotten it, model with your pointer finger. “What is happening to our mouth when we make this noise? When I do it, my teeth are almost all together and I push air out of my mouth. Also, the sides of my tongue are touching my teeth.” * You may want to tell them to act like they are going to say the /sh/ sound but not to actually do it yet. Get them to notice what there mouth look like by looking at their neighbor. You can say the lips look almost like a fish face but you must demonstrate this or they will make the common fish face with their cheeks sucked in.
3. Ok class, let’s try our tongue twister (on pre-made poster) with our new sound. I will say it first and then we will all say it together. “Shelly shopped for fish shoes.” Did you hear the /sh/ sound? Ok you say it with me and this time I want you to hold up your finger to your lips when you hear /sh/ (demonstration would help children understand what you want). Great hand motions! Ok, now let’s try to stretch out the /sh/ sound when we hear it in our tongue-twister. “ Shshshelly shshopped for fishsh shshoes”. Did anyone hear the /sh/ sound in two different places? I heard /sh/ at the beginning of shopped but what about fish? That’s right we heard it at the end! Now we know that we may see our/sh/ sound at the end of a word.
4. Let’s see if we can pick out our new /sh/ sound in some words. We can use our clue to help us. If we make the /sh/ or quiet noise when we say a word, we know that is has sh. Let’s try some words together. When you hear /sh/ I want you to put your finger up to your lips like you are telling someone to be quiet. * A good list to start with is: shoe, chew, rap, rash, should, could, shade, paid.
5. “Now that we’ve learned how to use clues to help us hear /sh/ and know sh in spoken words, let’s practice seeing /sh/ in written words. Everyone get out your writing paper and a pencil.” * Modeling is key here just as before. This would be a good time to hold up the pre-made Sh and sh poster. When writing the s and h on the board, use the following technique for optimal performance: S: first form a c up in the air between the rooftop and the fence, then swing back. s: form a tiny c up in the air, and then swing back. h: start at the rooftop, come down, and hump over. *To use this technique, you will need to label the rooftop and fence.
6. “Ok, now let’s try to spell some /sh/ words! Everyone get your letterboxes and letters out!” Demonstrate how to do so with your own letterbox on the whiteboard-you will need to draw a giant replica of the letterboxes. Slowly stretch out the word and remind the students that each box represents only one sound and sh is one sound that goes in one box. “I will model slowly stretching out the word shshshshooooppp. I will put sh in box one, o in box two, and p in box three, because the sh makes one sound so it goes in one box. Now, I am going to remove the letterboxes and read the word by itself. Shop. “Ok, class now it’s your turn to spell out some words.* To assess during this time, the Velcro dots are useful. When the child has finished his or her word, have them demonstrate the /sh/ sound and/or hold up their letterboxes.* “Open up three letterboxes and spell the word cash, fish, and ship. Next, open up four boxes and spell flash, and brush. Great job! Now, that you have spelled these words let’s see if you can read the words outside of the letterboxes.”
7. Now that we have learned how to listen for /sh/ in a word and spell /sh/ in our letterboxes, let’s read a story and listen for our new sound. We know our clues for recognizing the /sh/ sound. I want you to get out your One Fish, Two Fish, Red Fish, Blue Fish book and get with your partner. Together, I want you to read the story and make our quiet hand gesture(finger to the lips) when you hear the /sh/ sound. I will read the first page and show you how to do it.
8. Informal Assessment: This will take place during various activities. For example, during the introduction, the practice writing, tongue-twister, and read aloud.
Formal Assessment: Students will complete a formal assessment in the form of a worksheet. Various pictures will be given along with their name underneath. The students will need to color the appropriate picture with the new /sh/ sound and sh spelling.