Fluent reading is reading in which words are recognized automatically. With automatic word recognition, reading becomes faster, smoother, and more expressive, and students can begin to read silently, which is roughly twice as fast as oral reading. But beginning readers usually do not read fluently; reading is often a word-by-word struggle.
How do we help children struggling with slow, painstaking sounding out and blending? Support and encourage them. Effortful decoding is a necessary step to sight recognition. You can say, "I know reading is tough right now, but this is how you learn new words." Ask students to reread each sentence that requires ususual decoding effort.
In general, the fluency formula is this: Read and reread decodable words in connected text. Decode unknown words rather than guessing from context. Reread to master texts. Use text with words children can decode using known correspondences. Use whole, engaging texts to sustain interest.
There are two general approaches to improving fluency. The direct approach involves modeling and practice with repeated reading under time pressure. The indirect approach involves encouraging children to read voluntarily in their free time.
The direct approach: Repeated
We often restrict reading lessons to "sight reading." Who could
a musical instrument by only sight-reading music and never repeating
until they could be played in rhythm, up to tempo, with musical
In repeated reading, children work on reading as they would work at
music: They continue working with each text until it is
Repeated reading works best with readers who are full alphabetic, i.e.,
who know how to decode some words. Use a passage of 100 words or so at
level. The text should be decodable,
not predictable. The reader
might select a favorite from among familiar books.
Here are two ways to frame repeated reading.
Graph how fast students read while continually checking for reading
Graphing is motivating because it makes progress evident. The
basic procedure is to have your student read a short book or chapter as
you time the reading with a stopwatch. Graph the result with a
e.g., moving a basketball player closer to a slam dunk. Here is the
formula for correct words per minute:
|Number of words X 60
Number of seconds
You can quickly get the result with a hand calculator. Aim for speed, not accuracy. Over repeated readings, speed in WPM will
increase and errors will decrease. If you emphasize accuracy,
speed falls off.
I recommend you get a baseline reading first. A realistic average goal for a first grade reader is 85 WPM, but adjust the goal to your student's level—40 WPM may be plenty for very slow readers, and 120 WPM may be an appropriate challenge for others. Laminate your chart, and place a scale in erasable marker to the side. When the goal is reached, raise the bar 5 WPM for the next book or chapter, which requires a new scale on your graph.
Between readings, it is important to support
reading in ordinary ways: Ask a question or make a comment about
story events after each reading to keep a meaning
focus. Collect miscue notes to analyze for missing
correspondences. Help the student learn the words he or she struggled
with, using coverups. After identifying the word, have the
student reread the sentence.
Children enjoy repeated readings because their
success is evident.
They will ask you if they can
read the passage again!
Use check sheets for partner readings. With a class of
pair up readers to respond to one another. Begin by explaining what
you'll be listening for. Model fluent and nonfluent
reading. For example,
show the difference between smooth and choppy reading. Show how
readers make their voices go higher and lower, faster and slower,
In each pair, students take turns being the reader and the listener. The reader reads a selection three times. The listener gives a report after the second and third readings. All reports are complimentary. No criticism or advice is allowed.
The indirect approach: Voluntary
Sustained silent reading (SSR, a.k.a. DEAR, "drop everything and read") gives children a daily opportunity to read and discover the pleasure of reading. Each student chooses a book or magazine, and the entire class reads for a set period of time each day. SSR has been shown to lead to more positive attitudes toward reading and to gains in reading achievement when peer discussion groups discuss the books they read. When students share their reactions to books with classmates, they get recommendations from peers they take seriously.
Tierney, Readence, and Dishner, in Reading Strategies and Practices (Allyn & Bacon, 1990, pp. 461-462) list three "cardinal rules" for SSR:
Other essentials for encouraging voluntary reading include a plentiful library of books and frequent opportunities to choose. Children should be allowed and encouraged to read page turners (e.g., easy series books) rather than the classics for their independent reading. For gaining fluency, quantity is more important than quality.
Book introductions help children make informed
about what they want to read. For an effective booktalk, choose a
book you like. Show the illustrations to the students. Give
a brief talk, hitting the high points: the setting, characters, and the
inciting incident leading to the problem or goal. Do not get into
the plot, and especially not the resolution! If there is no clear
plot, ask a have-you-ever question (e.g., Have you ever been afraid of
the dark?) and relate the question to the book. Good booktalks
feature some oral reading, e.g., of a suspenseful part.
Return to the Reading Genie.