Jodi Gray
Emergent Literacy

RATIONALE:  This lesson should help students recognize the phoneme /d/ that is made by the letter "d" in spoken and written language.  It should also help them distinguish the letter "d" in written and printed texts.  The goal is to help students distinguish the difference between the lower-case letter "d" and the lower-case letter "b", since they look so similar, and learn what sound to use when they see the letter "d".  Sometimes this can be a difficult task for children.  This lesson will model for children the sounds each letter makes and it will also provide them practice using a new chant when writing both of these letters.

MATERIALS:   Primary writing paper
 Copy of Bud the Sub (1990. Educational Insights.)
 Chart paper with Hey Diddle, Diddle on it
 Flashcards with a picture and a word that tells the name of the picture underneath it (These cards should contain words that have /d/ in them but be sure to include some flashcards that do not contain the /d/ sound)

1.  Today we are going to learn about the letter "d".  Does anyone know what sound the letter "d" makes?  Can you explain to me what your mouth does when you make the /d/ sound?  Does you teeth come together?  Does your tongue touch the roof of your mouth?

2. Ask students:  Have any of you ever heard someone say "duh!" when they thought someone should know the answer to something?  Well this is the mouth move that we use when we see words with the letter "d" in them.  Usually you will only hear this sound at the beginning or ending of a word.  Let me give you some example words and you tell me if you hear the /d/ at the beginning or ending of the word.  Here is the first one, dog? Thatís right, you hear it at the beginning.  Ok, hereís the next one, mud?  Correct it came at the end of that word.  Here is an exception, under. It came in the middle of this word.  When /d/ comes in the middle of words then the "d" is sometimes doubled, such as in the word middle.  Did you hear /d/ in the word middle?  You are all catching on so fast.

3. Letís try a tongue twister and see if you can tell me where the /d/ in each word is located.  "Dirty dogs do not need to dive under the bed." Can everyone say that with me? "Dirty dogs do not need to dive under the bed."  Do you hear /d/ in the first wordÖetc?

4. <Get children to take out their primary writing paper and pencil>  Did you all know that you can use the letter "d" to spell things?  Letís practice writing the letter "d".  Does anyone remember what letter comes before lower-case "d"? Lower-case "c", thatís right.  First letís make the lower-case letter "c" and then I want you to look at the side where the opening in the lower-case c is and draw a straight line from the rooftop to the floor to close up the opening.  Does anyone know what you just made?  Thatís right a lower-case "d".  Letís make one more together while we repeat a little chant. Ready. "First little c and then little d".  I want you to make me a row of these while I come around the room and see how you are doing.  If you get stuck repeat the chant to help you.

5. Practice writing "d" and recognizing /d/ in words:  "Now that you have practiced writing the lower-case "d" I want you to look around the room and see if you can spot things that have the /d/ mouth move in them.  When you find one I want you to raise your hand and tell me what you have found."  When a child finds a word with the /d/ mouth move ask them all to write it down on their paper and continue with the next student.  "If you do not know how to spell a word just spell it the best way you can.  Think about the way your mouth moves when you say the word to help you."

6. Now I am going to read Bud the Sub. I want you to raise your hand when you hear a word with /d/ in it.  Then we will write it down on our chart.  I want you to be sure not to get lower-case "b" and lower-case "d" mixed up because they look an awful lot alike.  Can anyone tell me how we can tell the letters apart?  One way is to remember our chant "First little c and then little d".  Letís read it.  Now we are going to draw a picture to go along with the story, and display it in our hallway.

7. Do you all remember what I said about /d/ coming in the middle of words such as in the word middle?  Thatís right the "d" is sometimes doubled.  I want you all to look at our chart with the nursery rhyme Hey Diddle, Diddle on it.  Do you all see how the "d" is doubled in the rhyme?  Letís read this together as I point to each word as it is read then after we get done reading we will go back and when I point to each word I want you to tell me if it has the /d/ sound in it.

Hey Diddle, Diddle!
The cat and the Fiddle,
The cow jumped over the moon;
The little dog laughed
To see such sport,
And the dish ran away
With the spoon.

8. For assessment, do flashcards with pictures and words that have /d/ in them and some that do not.  See if the children can tell you if the word has the /d/ mouth move in it.  This can be done individually or with small group.

Carter, Marla. 1999. "Sound Search" http://teachers.net/lessons/posts/1324.html

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