need to be
aware that spoken words have phonemes which are the sounds of the
letters. This will help them in reading and writing. They
to understand the relationship between these sounds and the letters
represent them. Letter recognition is one of the two best
beginning reading success (Adams 36).
lesson students will learn to identify d = /d/ in written and
words and will gain experience with this letter through guided practice.
Primary paper and pencil
Chart with the tongue twister: “Daniel the dog digs a ditch deep in the
Bag (paper grocery store bag will be sufficient)
Picture cards of the following words: duck, dog, cat, dime, pig,
dress, candle, ball, bear, diamond, fish, sword, clock, radio, pot
for each child in the classroom
to be put
into the bag]
“Dawdle Duckling” by Toni Buzzeo - Published by: Dial
Books for Young Readers
Picture page with: bag, sand, phone, towel,
bread, dollar, calendar, strawberry, desk, and dog
Each of the words we say and write are made up of the twenty-six
in the alphabet. Each letter making its own sound. Our
in different ways to form each sound. Today we are going to be
the mouth movement for /d/. Let’s all practice moving our mouths
we say “ddddd” Very good! Sometimes the /d/ will be
hidden in words, but pay close attention and I know you will be able to
you ever heard a car or boat motor that is trying to start, but just
can’t? The motor seems to be saying “ddddduh.”
Think about what your mouth does when you make that noise. The
tip of your
tongue barely touches the roof of your mouth, right behind your top
then your mouth opens a little bit and your tongue just POPS
me say it: (model) "ddddduh". Now it’s your turn!
Let’s all try and start our motors together, “dddduh.”
let’s try a fun tongue twister!” [on chart] Read through the
tongue twister once before explaining the activity to the
“As we read through the tongue twister this time I want you to listen
the /d/ sound, every time you hear the /d/ sound I want you to pretend
your motors. Dddaniel the dddog dddigs a ddditch dddeep in the
sanddd.” Repeat reading through the tongue twisters several
times until all of the students are starting their motors at the
Also, have students break the /d/ apart from the word as they read it
once or twice. “/D/ aniel the /d/ og /d/ igs a /d/ itch
/d/eep in the san /d/.” Great job!
paper and pencil] “Now that we know what the letter d sounds
like we are going to learn and practice how to write the letter d on
paper. I want everyone to watch as I show you how to write the
Then we will all practice. Start by reviewing how to make the
which will be used to make the little d. To make our
start a little below the fence, come up and touch the fence then around
touch the sidewalk and then come up a little above the sidewalk.
little c, then little d. I want you all to
the letter d on your paper. I am going to walk around and look at
wonderful letters you are making!” Teacher will walk around the
room offering extra guidance to struggling students. After each
mastered the letter d, proceed to the next part of the lesson.
[Children sitting in
their seats at desks your tables] “Now we are going to play a
game. I have cards with different pictures on them in my
bag. I am
going to come around and each of you will draw a card. Read the card
yourself. Be careful not to tell us what your word is yet.
card has the /d/ sound in its name raise your hand, if your card does
the /d/ sound in its name put your head down on your desk. When
has drawn a card and determined if it has the /d/ sound in it we will
the room and share our cards with each other.
be altered to be a more active game: [Teacher would bring
children to the
floor in a semi-circle around the teacher] “Now we are going to play a
game. I have cards with different pictures on them. When it
turn, I want you to draw a card. Read the card silently to
yourself. Be careful not to tell us what your word is
When everyone has drawn a card, I will count to three. On the
three I want you to go to this side of the room [point to left] if your
has the /d/ sound in it and this side of the room [point to right] if
does not have the /d/ sound. We will then read them aloud as a
class.” Cards will be set out like memory where they are upside
down so that the student cannot pick a word on purpose. Once the
all get to a side of the room have them go through and read their cards
aloud. Make sure that the class agrees with each student’s
and have them move accordingly.
For a little more review, go through a simple list of a few pairs of
the students to determine which word the /d/ sound is found in.
“Now I am going to give you a few pairs of words and I want you to tell
me which of the two words you hear the /d/ sound in. For example,
hear the /d/ sound in dog or cat? ddd-ooo- ggg. dog. ccc-aaa-ttt.
cat. [Wait for student response] Very good! The /d/ sound
dog! Now here are your words, listen carefully:
6. Read “Dawdle
Duckling” by Toni Buzzeo. Have students raise their hands as
they hear the /d/ sound while you read the story aloud.
Give students the picture page handout with various pictures. The
pictures will be of words that do have the d = /d/
well as, pictures that do not. Have students write the letter d
each picture that has the /d/ sound in it. Writing the letter
the teacher to check for mastery of the written letter, and writing the
under only pictures that have the /d/ in them will allow the teacher to
for mastery of the d = /d/ correspondence.
to Read: Thinking and Learning About Print. 1990.
It’s D! http://www.auburn.edu/rdggenie/discov/adamsel.html.
Decoding; Why and How. Upper
Saddle River, NJ.
(2005). pg. 60-82.
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