"Otter" Sum It Up!

 otterrun

 

Teri Crum

Reading to Learn Plan

 

Rationale:  Students need to know how to use strategies in reading to effectively comprehend text.  There are several strategies that have been proven to be effective comprehension strategies.  These strategies are summarization, representational imagery, story grammar, question generation and question answering.   To do this, students must be taught the strategies explicitly.  This lesson is designed to teach students how to use the comprehension strategy of summarization through finding the main idea in an expository text by learning how to eliminate unimportant text, text that may be repeated, give a broader more general word for lists of items, compile series of events under one word and to select or invent a topic sentence .  Upon mastering the strategy of summarization, students will be able to utilize this strategy and become better at comprehension. 

Materials:  Six Rules of Summarization Poster and Handouts-one per student (crossout unimportant information, crossout repeated information, use broader or more general word for lists of items, compile a series of events under one general word, select a topic sentence and invent a topic sentence if there is none), Everything You "Otter" Know About Sea Otters from Ranger Rick online (http://www.nwf.org/Kids/Ranger-Rick/Animals/Mammals/Sea-Otters.aspx) print a copy for each student, Handout with paragraph one per student, "Sea otters came close to extinction during The Great Hunt that began in 1743. In 1911, they gained protection under a law that prohibited otter hunting and the sale of otter pelts.  Even though sea otters have increased in number, hazards created by humans keep their survival in question.",  Red Squirrels from Ranger Rick online (http://www.nwf.org/Red Squirrels -National Wildlife Federation Kids/Ranger-Rick/Animals/Mammals/Red-Squirrels-pdf.aspx) print a copy for each student, Reading Journal, (Folder with lined paper already inserted in brads for writing), pencils, checklist for assessment:

 

Name:

Student shows work on:

 

 

Delete trivial (or unimportant) information.

Y

N

Delete redundant (or repeated) information.

Y

N

Substitute general terms for lists of items.

Y

N

Integrate a series of events with a general action term.

Y

N

Select a topic sentence.

Y

N

Invent a topic sentence if there is none.

Y

N

Assessment of writing summary paragraph

 

 

Student shows no knowledge of summarization

N

 

Student shows some knowledge of summarization

S

 

Student shows mastery knowledge of summarization 

M

 

 

Procedures: 

     1.  First I will explain to the students that readers should not only read fluently but they should also comprehend the text they are reading.  One strategy that helps us to comprehend the text we are reading is summarization.  Summarization is when we explain the main ideas in a passage.  When we explain the main ideas, we are forced to really think about what we are reading instead of just reading the text quickly and correctly.  Today, we will apply the strategy of summarization to an article about red squirrels by finding out the main idea in the text. 

     2.  Before we begin to read for comprehension, let's review reading with expression.  I will say, "Let's read an article together about otters and I will model for you how to summarize each paragraph.  The article that we will be working on together is Everything You "Otter" Know About Sea Otters."  Now I will read aloud the first paragraph and the students will follow along on computer or individual copy of text. I will read fluently but without expression. "Sea Otters are members of the weasel family." I will stop and say to the class, "That didn't sound very interesting.  What did I forget to use while I was reading?  That's right, I forgot to use expression. Remember when we read we must read with expression to add life to the words.  Let me try that again, 'Sea Otters are members of the weasel family.' That was much better.  Did you hear the difference in my voice and the emphasis placed on specific words? Now I will finish reading the paragraph.  'Sea Otters are members of the weasel family.  They live along the coasts of the northern Pacific Ocean.  Two kinds of sea otters live in the United States: the California, or southern, sea otter and the Alaskan, or northern, sea otter.' That sounded so much better when I read with expression."  I will have students reread this paragraph with me out loud so that I will hear them using expression in reading too. I will say, "Great job of reading with expression!"

     3.  Now that we have reviewed reading with expression and practiced it a bit, let's learn the steps that will help us learn more about summarization.  There are six steps that will help us summarize if we follow them.  I will say, "Let's look at the poster I have here (pointing to the poster).  These are the Six Steps of Summarization." I will then go over and explain each step.  The rules of summarization are as follows:

1.       Crossout unimportant information.

2.       Crossout repeated information.

3.       Use broader or more general word for lists of items.

4.       Compile series of events under one general word.

5.       Select a topic sentence.

6.       Invent a topic sentence if there is none.

     4.  I will model how to summarize the first paragraph.  I will say, "Let's look at the paragraph I just read.  I will underscore, 'Sea otters,' 'weasel family,' 'live,' 'coasts,' 'northern Pacific Ocean,' 'Two kinds,' 'United States,' 'California,' and 'Alaskan.' I will then mark out to delete the other text in that paragraph because I have the main points." Then I will read aloud again while the students read silently with me. Now I will say, "I would like for you to read silently the second paragraph while I read aloud, They Float." After reading, now I will model for them substituting general terms for lists of items.  I will reread, "California sea otters stay in the water more than Alaskan ones - eating, sleeping and even having their pups there." I will model how to substitute by simplifying it to, "California sea otters do many activities in water."  I will have students read along with me while I read, They Have Fantastic Fur, They're Waterproof, They Really Chow Down, They "Tool Around" and They're Neatniks.  After reading these five sections, I will model how to integrate a series of events with a general action term.  I will discuss out loud my thoughts on these five passages and say, "Sea otters fur and food plays an important role in their survival." I will read aloud while the students follow along the last two sections, They're Friendly and Their Babies Ride on Them.  Upon completing the reading, I will model for the students how to select a topic sentence or to invent a topic sentence if there is none.  I will discuss out loud each section.  I will say, "For the paragraph They're Friendly, 'Sea otters often eat, rest, and sleep together while floating in groups called rafts,' could be used as a topic sentence or it could be shorted to sea otters often float in rafts.  In looking at the section Their Babies Ride on Them, I would use, 'Mothers nurture their baby.' This should show the two different ways of either selecting or inventing a topic sentence."  Finally, I will model how I could take these steps that I used in each paragraph and transfer it to making a summarization of the story.  I will think out loud all of the information that I modeled and create a summary, verbal and written, of this text.  I will say as I write, "Sea otters live around the northern Pacific Ocean coasts.  There are Alaskan and California sea otters in the U.S.  They do many activities in water.  Their fur and food play very important roles.  Sea otters float in groups, rafts. The mothers are very nurturing to their babies."

     5.  Upon modeling all the steps to the students for summarization, I will give them a handout of this paragraph for them to practice the six rules of summarization.  I will guide the students in this practice to scaffold learning as needed. 

 

"Sea otters came close to extinction during The Great Hunt that began in 1743. In 1911, they gained protection under a law that prohibited otter hunting and the sale of otter pelts.  Even though sea otters have increased in number, hazards created by humans keep their survival in question."

I would ask, "What would be the main points that we can underscore so that we can cross out the trivial and redundant information?" Allow for reply.  "Yes, that is correct, Sea otters, The Great Hunt, 1911, protection, law."

I would ask, "Is there anything that we can substitute general terms for lists of items or integrate a series of events with a general action term?" Allow for reply.  "Yes, we could condense the prohibited otter hunting, sale of otter pelts into prohibited hunting of otters for any reason."

I would ask, "Do you think there is already an existing topic sentence or will we need to invent a topic sentence?" Allow for reply.  "Yes, I think that we could say, 'The 1911 law has helped sea otters from becoming extinct.' You have shown your understanding of summarization along with my guidance."

     6.  I will say, "Now that I have informed, modeled and guided you through the six rules of summarization, I am going to give each of you a copy of Red Squirrels, an article from Ranger Rick.  This article is about the history of squirrels and troubles they have endured.  Is there a solution to help the squirrels? Well, to find out you have to read the text.  Please make sure that you read the text with expression silently in your mind.  This is an independent reading.  After you complete reading the text, please reread it before you begin to try and discover the main ideas so that you can summarize this text into a paragraph. I will be available for more guidance if needed, just raise your hand and I will come to you.  After going through the six rules of summarization, I wish for you to show your work on the article, noting what you think the main ideas are and how you would merge those main ideas from each paragraph to write a summary in your reading journal.  The paragraphs are fairly short, so I do not think that time will be an issue for you."

     7.  After students begin reading, I will handout the Six Rules of Summarization for them to keep in their reading journal. I will place one on each desk quietly as they are reading.  This will also allow me to monitor the reading to make sure that students read first to gain knowledge of the text and practice reading with expression and then to reread to dissect the text to gain knowledge of the main ideas.  I will continue to walk quietly and monitor students during this exercise to scaffold student's learning if needed.  

     8.  Assessment: I will use the work shown on the Red Squirrel article and the summary written about this article in their reading journal for assessment.  If the students were able to effectively show use of the comprehension strategy summarization but markings on their article and their writing reflects this, I will know they have grasped this concept. I will use a checklist below to make notes for assessment:

 

 

Name:

Student shows work on:

 

 

Delete trivial (or unimportant) information.

Y

N

Delete redundant (or repeated) information.

Y

N

Substitute general terms for lists of items.

Y

N

Integrate a series of events with a general action term.

Y

N

Select a topic sentence.

Y

N

Invent a topic sentence if there is none.

Y

N

Assessment of writing summary paragraph

 

 

Student shows no knowledge of summarization

N

 

Student shows some knowledge of summarization

S

 

Student shows mastery knowledge of summarization 

M

 

 

References:

Pressley, Michael. Strategies That Improve Children's Memory and Comprehension of Text. The Elementary School Journal, Volume 90, Number 1.  University of Chicago: 1989.

Ranger Rick.

http://www.nwf.org/Red Squirrels - National Wildlife FederationKids/Ranger-Rick/Animals/Mammals/Red-Squirrels-pdf.aspx

Ranger Rick.

http://www.nwf.org/Kids/Ranger-Rick/Animals/Mammals/Sea-Otters.aspx

Boyle, Doe. OTTER ON HIS OWN The Story of a Sea Otter. Soundprints, c1995. pp. 31

 

Say, Maggie. Sum It Up! Odysseys, 2007.

http://www.auburn.edu/academic/education/reading_genie/odysseys/sayerl.html

Long, Angela Carroll. Swoosh- Remember That. Inspirations, 2003.

http://www.auburn.edu/academic/education/reading_genie/insp/longrl.html

 

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