1. What type of life cycle is common to all groups of land plants? What characterizes spore and gamete production? Draw a general life cycle showing alternation of generations. By what kind of cell division are meiospores produced? ...gametes?

2. Why are the bryophytes considered to be the "amphibians" of the plant world? Name the 3 phyla included in this group by scientific and common names and briefly describe each.

3. Draw the life cycle of a typical member of the Bryophyta. Label all parts as either haploid or diploid. Explain why water is required for sexual reproduction. Which generation is more dominant, the gametophyte or the sporophyte? Which grows attached to and dependent upon the other? Describe how spores are released from the sporophyte capsule. What kind of spores are they?

4. How does the life cycle of a liverwort differ from that of a moss? What characterizes their asexual reproduction? What is an antheridiophore and an archegoniophore? How does the growth form of the gametophyte differ from that of a moss? Where are elater cells found and what is their function?

5. Draw a diagram of a hornwort. To which other bryophyte group is it most similar? How are spores released? Is water required for sexual reproduction? Why?

6. How are vascular plants different from the bryophytes? List organs and tissue systems. Briefly describe their functions. List 4 different meristems and explain the kind of growth they produce. What is the primary plant body? ....secondary growth? What are microphylls and megaphylls? Which are most ancestral? ...derived?

7. List the phyla of seedless vascular plants. Provide a common name and brief description of each. Draw the life cycle of a typical lycophyte. Which is the more dominant generation? Diagram a fern life cycle and compare and contrast it to the lycophyte life cycle. How are these plants terrestrially adapted? What terrestrial adaptations do they lack?

8. Define heterospory. How does it impact the way we depict life cycles? How do gametophytes differ? What plant groups did we study that were homosporous? In which groups did heterospory evolve? Which groups are uniformly heterosporous? How was the evolution of heterospory important to the evolution of seed producing plants?

9. Describe and diagram a seed. What generations are involved? Which parts are diploid and which are haploid? How does it provide terrestrial adaptation? What plant groups produce true seeds. List the phyla that produce seeds but not fruit, the gymnosperms.

10. Diagram a pine pollen cone. What other terms can be used to indicate this structure? How does this fit into the sporic life cycle? Draw and label the cells in a pollen grain. Is it haploid or diploid?

11. Diagram a pine seed cone. What other terms can be used to indicate this structure? How does this fit into the sporic life cycle? Draw and label the cells in an early and later stage ovuliferous scale complex. Are they haploid or diploid?

12. List the steps that must occur before sperm and egg cells fuse. Distinguish between pollination and fertilization. Draw and label a pine seed. Show how 3 different generations are involved. From what does the embryo develop? Draw and label an embryo.

13. List the 4 gymnosperm phyla. Provide several species examples of conifers. Of what economic importance are they? How many species of Ginkgophyta are there? List several unique characteristics. Describe cycads. How do they differ from conifers? Are they dioecious or monoecious? List 3 genera of Gnetophyta. What are the unique characteristics of Welwitschia?

14. Write a taxonomic summary of the groups we have discussed so far. You should include members of 3 domains, 6 kingdoms, and a number of phyla within the eukaryotic kingdoms, Fungi, Protista and Plantae.

15. List characteristics common to members of the phylum Anthophyta (Angiosperms).

16. What is a flower? Diagram a typical flower and label the following parts: peduncle, receptacle, calyx, corolla, perianth, androecium, stamen, filament, anther, gynoecium, pistil, carpels, stigma, style, ovary. Diagram the following inflorescence types: spike, raceme, panicle, corymb, umbel, composite head. Distinguish between complete and incomplete flowers; perfect and imperfect flowers. What does the term monoecious mean when referring to a flowering plant? Explain other ways that flowers may vary by defining the terms connation, adnation, epigynous, hypogynous and perigynous. Describe the characteristics of flowers that are pollinated by wind; bees, moths, hummingbirds, and bats.

17. Draw a diagram to represent the life cycle of a flowering plant. Make separate lines to distinguish microsporogenesis and microgametogenesis from megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis. Explain the difference between pollination and fertilization. What is double fertilization. label the parts of the megagametophyte. Which cells will become the endosperm and the embryo?

18. What is a fruit? What tissue in a flower is it derived from? Distinguish among the several types of fleshy and dry fruits. Explain the differences among simple, aggregate, multiple and accessory fruits.

19. Diagram an angiosperm seed. Identify the tissue or cell that each part is derived from. Distinguish between diotyledonous and monocotyledonous seeds; albuminous and exalbuminous seeds. Explain what happens in ripening and after-ripening. What is scarification? How is the need for scarification adaptive?

20. Diagram the parts of a plant embryo in each of the following stages: globular, heart-shaped, and torpedo. Where are the primary meristems? What 3 primary meristems exist? What is the difference between epigeous and hypogeous germination?

21. Outline the 3 tissue systems of vascular plants. Include the tissue types and cell types included in each. List the functions of each tissue type. How is a simple tissue different from a complex tissue? What cells are alive at maturity? How does the vascular tissue of gymnosperms differ from that of angiosperms?

22. What is growth? Distinguish between primary and secondary growth in plants. What kinds of plants have secondary growth? What are initials and derivatives?

23. How do periclinal divisions differ from anticlinal divisions? List the primary meristems; the secondary meristems.

24. Diagram a cross-section of a plant stem with at least 3 years of secondary growth. Identify both secondary meristems and the tissues they produce. where is the older vs. the more recently formed xylem?; phloem?; periderm? What layers are included in bark? Why does girdling kill a tree? Why are growth rings evident in wood? (How does sap wood differ from heart wood?); spring wood from summer wood? What is wood?

*25. List 5 groups of hormones and their functions. Explain the function of auxins in apical dominance and leaf abscission. What experiments were performed by Darwin, Went and others leading to the discovery of the function of auxins in phototropism? *not covered*

*26. Define and list plant tropisms. What are nastic movements and how are they stimulated? *not covered*